Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

1) Technology is a double edged sword. It throws up new challenges in the realm of law and order and security for governments that need to be dealt with innovatively. In this context, Analyze the impact and challenges of  social media on internal security and suggest effective measures to tackle this evolving situation.

[GS3-Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites]


  1. Introduction
  2. Impact of social media and new challenges
  5. Effective measures to tackle
  6. conclusion


The advent of Social media has triggered an information revolution the world over that has forced people, governments and organisations to rethink strategies on how they manage their information and engage in an increasingly interconnected world.

Impact of social media:

  1. It has democratised access to information and netizens around the world become creators and disseminators of content, not just consumers of it.
  1. WhatsApp has about 400 million active Indian users (about four times that in the US where it is headquartered); about 300 million Facebook users are active in India (about 100 million more than the US); about 250 million YouTube users in India (about 50 million more than the US).
  1. People feel empowered to bypass traditional curators of information, such as journalists and editors, in searching for their choice of content.
  1. The public opinion is amplified on social media, making democracy more transparent and even stronger.
  1. The convergence of various forms of media—television, social, and online networks as instruments of information and generators of user content—have multi-dimensional implications for law and order as well as security

Social media and the era of new challenges:

  1. Social media platforms are flooded with fake news and rumours, hate speech, Breach of privacy, Cyber bullying and trolling and other negative elements. Ex. in cases like that of Bulli Bai App to target women and communities.
  1. This is further accentuated by tech platforms directing more content at people similar to what they have already seen, thus creating echo chambers of like-minded groups.
  1. Terrorists, Insurgents, Maoist and other fundamentalists use social media for propaganda, to recruit, raise funds, ,religious indoctrination, radicalisation  and plan and target their attacks like lone wolf attacks and actions. Ex. ISIS use social media effectively for their propaganda and recruitment.

Social media and the legal challenges:

  1. Fears of censorship of freedom of speech and expression : accused of manipulating views and opinions like shadow banning and found selling precious data.
  1. Internet Traffic Monitoring and Privacy Concerns: Police projects like Social Media Labs depend entirely on information available on public platforms to collect , combine, share and analyse the data and its patterns for its intelligence and counter action purposes.
  1. Issues regarding liability of intermediaries: With such a large market share, the significant data fiduciaries have an obligation to abide by the law of the land, in the interest of the data subjects in India at large. But by using their significant market power to defy rules of the land.         
  1. Complications in jurisdiction with subsidiaries of foreign internet companies: social media service providers like Facebook, Google (YouTube, Blogspot), Twitter, etc., provide web and social media services from their servers installed in the US and hence say they will comply only with US laws.

Effective measures to tackle: 

  1. Adapting social media for effective management and policing: Emphasis on the use of social media to build effective counter narratives and combat the extremist challenge.
  1. Adapting social media for developing actionable intelligence: Mining information available publicly for actionable social media intelligence(SOCINT).
  1. Institutionalise the blueprint for a National Social Media Policy: Revise The National Cyber Security Policy to include social media challenges which are distinct from the cyber security threats. The Information Technology (Guidelines for Intermediaries and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 is a step in right direction by government.
  2. Create awareness on the Challenges posed by social media: awareness amongst citizens, law enforcement agencies and higher levels on the potential of misuse like malware propagation, phishing, cybercrime and misinformation campaigns.
  1. Create effective organisational ecosystems in security and law enforcement agencies: It will not only help in disseminating of information and preventing misuse of the medium, but it will also build trust with the engaged communities, ensuring their support during times of crises.
  1. Data Protection Law: In order to secure the right of privacy of the citizens and for making the IT rules serve their ultimate purpose, there is a need to expedite the passing of the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019.


We need to guard against the negative impact of social media, which ought to be used in the correct manner for creative or productive purposes so that it is progressive to mankind and society at large, rather than regressive.

2) AGNIPATH scheme will ensure armed Forces to have a younger, fitter, diverse profile for facing future challenges. Critically analyse the features of the scheme along with its implications.  [GS3-Security forces and agencies and their mandate]


  1. Introduction
  2. Features of AGNIPATH scheme
  3. Advantages of the scheme for armed forces and to the society
  4. Implications of the agnipath scheme
  5. Conclusion


An attractive recruitment scheme for Indian youth to serve in the Armed Forces. The scheme is called AGNIPATH and the youth selected under this scheme will be known as Agniveers. 


AGNIPATH allows patriotic and motivated youth to serve in the Armed Forces for a period of four years.

Features of the AGNIPATH scheme:

  1. It is a major defence policy reform introduced by the Government to usher in a new era in the Human Resource policy of the three Services.
  1. Recruitment to three services : Opportunity to serve the nation as Agniveers through enrolment into the three services of the armed forces. The Agnipath Scheme will be the only route for recruitment of soldiers into the military.
  1. Pan India merit based recruitment: Enrolment will be undertaken through an online centralised system for all three services. Enrolment will be based on ‘All India All Class’ basis and the eligible age will be in range from 17.5 to 21 years. 
  1. Four years tenure: The recruits named Agniveers serve for a tenure of four years that includes training for six months followed by 3.5 years deployment.
  1. Opportunity for permanent enrolment : After retirement from the service, they will have the opportunity to apply to continue in the armed forces. Not more than 25 percent of the total strength of the retiring batch will be selected for the permanent cadre.
  1. Monthly emoluments and ‘SevaNidhi’ package: Attractive monthly emoluments and handsome “Seva Nidhi” package an amount of 11 lakhswith accrued interest.

Advantages of the scheme for armed forces and to the society

  1. Mix of youth and experienced personnel: The scheme will lead to much more youthful and technically adept war fighting force by ensuring a fine balance between youthful and experienced personnel in the Armed Forces.
  1. Youthful and dynamic profile:  It is envisaged that average age profile of Indian Armed forces would come down by about 4-5 years by implementation of this scheme
  1. Availability of trained personnel: to boost national security in times of external threats, internal threats and natural disasters.
  1. Modernisation of armed forces :It will lead to long-term benefit for the armed forces by reducing the ballooning salary and pension bills of the military, thereby leaving a large sum of money for the modernisation of armed forces. In the budget estimate for FY22, the salaries and pensions of the forces make up over 54% of the total defence budget. On the other hand, capital outlay accounts for 27% of the budget.
  1. Well-disciplined and skilled Workforce to society : Availability of well-disciplined and skilled youth with military ethos in civil society. The Agniveerswill be infused into the civil society where they can contribute immensely towards the nation building process.
  1. Opportunities to Agniveers: Opportunity for Agniveers to train in the best institutions and enhance their skills & qualifications. Adequate re-employment opportunities for those returning to society and who could emerge as role models for the youth.

Implications of the agnipath scheme

  1. Absence of post employment benefits: The scheme will not include long tenures, pension and other benefits which were there in the old system. Prior to the introduction of the scheme, soldiers were recruited into the armed forces on a 15+ year tenure with lifelong pension.
  2. No prior debate or discussion: The scheme was neither debated in the parliament nor in the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence. Before the introduction of the new scheme for recruitment, Indian government did not produce any white paper. No information about the scheme was given to the public prior to its announcement.
  1. Too short period of service compromise quality and efficiency: Professional armed forces cannot be raised by recruiting ‘soldiers on contract’ for a period of four years. It will dilute the long existing distinct ethos of regiments. As four year service is too short for a soldier. It may compromises the quality and efficiency of our professional armed forces.
  1. Issue of applicability to all three forces: In its present form, is suitable only for the army, whose large infantry component is not excessively burdened with technology. In case of the navy and air force, it must be recognised that at least 5-6 years are required before a new entrant can acquire enough hands-on experience.
  1. Affect operational preparedness: It will degrade the Army’s ability to win wars. to exercise command & control during war situation requires adequate experience and training.


The government will need to take the ownership and accommodate all stakeholders and address the reasonable criticisms raised from all quarters. Ensure national security should not be compromised at any cost.

3) What are the linkages between organized crime and terrorism?  How is organised crime in India reinforcing terrorism? Mention measures taken by government and your  suggestions to tackle to tackle this unholy nexus.  [GS3-Linkages of organized crime with terrorism]


  1. Introduction
  2. Linkages between organized crime and terrorism
  3. How Organized crime reinforcing terrorism in India
  4. Measure taken by government
  5. Suggestions to break the unholy nexus:
  6. Conclusion


Terrorism and organised crimes (money laundering, drug trade, weapons trade, human trafficking, fake currency) are conjoint twins and developed a symbiotic relationship especially in recent times.

With increasing international pressure, increased understanding between governments of different countries the state funding of these terrorists is going down day by day so, for financial viability, their link with organised crime is increasing.

Linkages between organized crime and terrorism:

  1. Terrorist groups, whether indigenous or sponsored by outside states, need arms and money for their fight against the security forces. For that terrorists engage in organised crime to fund their terrorist activity. Terrorists can benefit from organized crime as a source of financing or logistical support through the trafficking of arms, persons, drugs, artefacts and cultural property.
  1. Organized crime conglomerates need a clientele and couriers who can smuggle drugs, arms and human beings across the countries and regions. Due to the transnational nature of the organised crime, they host the terrorist and create opportunities for their growth in new areas.
  2. Terrorist groups use the established network of organised criminal groups for the transfer of money.
  3. Organised crime groups provide smuggled arms and explosives to terrorist groups in exchange terrorist groups provide protection, drugs etc.
  4. The terrorist organisations also mobilise funds by providing couriers of illegal drugs and arms for the various organised criminal groups.
  5. They have a symbiotic relationship and their strong presence can be seen in the areas having ineffective governance. But neither all terrorist acts are organized crimes, nor are all organized criminal acts are terrorism.

How Organized crime reinforcing terrorism in India:

North-east insurgency and organized crime:

  1. Parallel government :Almost all the militant groups run a parallel government or have their areas of influence.
  2. Extortion: They are involved in collecting money directly from the people. In the Northeast, extortion is the fundamental basis for funding all forms of terrorism.
  • Contracts: Government fundsreach the militants indirectly due to misgovernance. Government officials in conflict zones are either threatened or bribed to award contracts to individuals patronized by the militant groups.

Black marketing: Contracts apart, essential commodities like rice and kerosene reach the militant groups directly which are then sold to the public at much higher prices.

  1. kidnapping for ransom:It has been used extensively for spreading terror and raising funds.
  2. Trafficking: trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling;  trafficking in drugs, firearms, cultural property and other goods

Linkages of J&K terrorism with organized crimes :

  1. counterfeit currency: It has been a major source of funding terrorism.
  2. Money laundering : plays a significant role. Hawala (money laundering) transactions take place swiftly and effectively in Kashmir.
  • Drug money and Drug trafficking: it is also believed that the ISI uses drug money to fund militant activities in Kashmir.

Nexus in Maoist terror movements :

  1. Extortion: It is yet again a common phenomenon. 
  2. Robberies: robberies of banksto fund their movement.
  • Revenues from drug yielding crops: There have also been reports of cuts being enforced on drug yielding crops in the region.

Measures taken by government:

  1. India adopted UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (UNTOC) along with three other protocols i.e. trafficking in persons especially women and children, smuggling of migrants, illegal manufacturing and trafficking of firearms.
  1. Financial action task force(FATF) deal with the issue of money laundering and terror funding.
  • India also adopted the international drug control conventions and  the global counter-terrorism instruments. It also coordinates with United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to tackle drug menace, organized crime, corruption and terrorism.


  1. Enacted The unlawful activities prevention act of 1967, Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (NDPS), NIA act ,AFSPA act and state level acts like Maharashtra control of organised crime act, 1999.

Suggestions to break the unholy nexus:

  1. Strengthening border security, International coordination and better intelligence to disrupt the networks of terrorists and syndicates of organised criminal groups especially in border areas and coastal regions of the country.
  1. Stringent laws to fight money-laundering, terrorist financing and corruption by firming up Financial Intelligence Units as well as building public-private partnerships
  • Implementing comprehensive responses to drug demand and illicit drug trafficking
  1. Capacity and better training to law enforcement agencies of the country. Along with improving prison management, to prevent radicalization to violence and recidivism
  1. Developing strategies incorporating whole-of-society approachesto prevent and counter violent extremism .
  1. The multi-pronged legislative, policy and operational responses are needed to tackle this unholy nexus.


The threat of organised crime is increasing day by day as organised crime feed over instability and weak law enforcement so, strengthening the governance mechanism is the key.

India must take its immediate neighbours and international community  in confidence that their land must not be used for organised crime and break its unholy nexus with terrorism.



4)”The arrival of the concept of Indo-pacific provided India to shift from continental strategies to maritime strategy to enhance its influence and secure its interest in the maritime region.” In the light of this statement, examine the importance of having a robust maritime strategy with respect to India’s maritime security concerns?

[GS3-SECURITY – Role of external and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security]


  1. Introduction
  2. India’s maritime security concerns
  3. Maritime strategy taken by India to address its maritime security concerns
  4. Measures to improve maritime capabilities
  5. Conclusion


Unlike in the continental sphere where border issues with Pakistan and China does not attract great power interest, The concept of Indo-Pacific interest in maritime sphere provided an opportunity to India to undertake coalition building, rule setting, and other forms of strategic exploration .

India’s maritime security concerns:

  1. Maritime piracy:

Piracy off the coast of Somalia / in the Gulf of Aden / Horn of Africa (East Africa) had surged very significantly from 2008 to 2012.

The High Risk Area(HRA) line in the Indian Ocean region is designated at East of 65 degrees East longitude by International maritime organisation(IMO).The westward shift of it towards Indian coast due to piracy will affect  India’s EXIM trade and consumers on account of increased insurance premium and consequently freight costs.

  1. Maritime terrorism:

International waters are used by terrorists to execute their operations. with potential for asymmetric and hybrid warfare it poses a serious threat.

For instance, the 2008 Mumbai Attacks occurred due to a maritime security lapse.  

  1. Illegal immigration and migration:

International Oceans are a better way to enter into another country’s territory than taking the land/air route.

Ex. illegal immigrants from srilanka and bangladesh enter into India and also using India as a transit route to reach other countries.

  1. Transnational organized crimes:

Increase in  illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, trafficking in persons, illicit trafficking in firearms, armed robbery etc inflict significant harm on the global economy and jeopardize the security of the state.

  1. Regional instabilities and natural catastrophes:

The rising pollution level and climate change have enhanced the frequencies of cyclones, floods, etc. catastrophes across the world.

Ex:The recent Srilanka’s economic crisis

Ex. 2004 Tsunami  necessitated the cooperation between countries in Indian ocean region to carry out Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations.

Maritime strategy taken by India to address its maritime security concerns:

  1. Indian Maritime Security Strategy (IMSS) 2015 of Indian Navy :

It mentions the strategy for deterrence, during conflict, for Shaping a Favourable and Positive Maritime Environment, for coastal and offshore security and for maritime force and capability development. It helps to India to play the role of the ‘Preferred Security Partner’ in our extended maritime neighbourhood.

  1. The Coastal Security Scheme:

It aims to augment the capabilities of police force of coastal states and UTs for patrolling and surveillance by Marine police force in territorial waters especially shallow waters close to the coast.

  1. Five point agenda:

Under India’s presidency United Nations Security Council also hosted a high level open debate on enhancing Maritime Security and adopted a 5 point agenda proposed by the Indian PM for tackling maritime security.

  1. Initiatives in Coastal Security Infrastructure:

National Command Control Communication and Intelligence Network (NC3I) has been launched to provide near gapless surveillance of the entire coastline. I

5.Maritime operational engagements with friendly maritime forces:

Operational interactions like MILAN with friendly foreign countries in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) include activities like Joint Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Surveillance to enhance Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA), Coordinated Patrols on annual / bi-annual basis along the International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL), Maritime Exercises, etc. 

  1. HADR and NEO operations:

Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations and Non-combatant Evacuation Operations (NEO) in Indian Ocean Region to enhance maritime security. Ex. Operation Vanilla to Madagascar

7.Regioal cooperation frameworks:

India also participates in regional frameworks such as Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Forum (ARF), East Asia Summit (EAS), Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) and the ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting Plus (ADMM Plus) to expand its cooperation and exchanges with the Indo-Pacific region.

  1. Exchanges Maritime Information:

To create Maritime Domain Awareness in IOR, India exchanges  information on military and naval assets of hostile / adversarial countries; assessment of maritime activities of mutual concern and activities related to transnational maritime based threats.

  1. Free, open, inclusive and rules-based Indo-Pacific region:

 At the 2018 Shangri-La Dialogue Prime Minister Narendra Modi outlined the vision for free, open, inclusive and rules-based Indo-Pacific region.

Measures to improve maritime capabilities :

  1. Developing Blue-water Naval Capabilities:

Given India’s stakes in Indian ocean, it is very significant for India to develop blue-water naval capabilities.

  1. Develop Sea-denial capability at maritime at choke points:

India should develop sea-denial capability mainly at choke points in Indian ocean such as Strait of Hormuz, Bab-el-Mandeb, Strait of Malacca to tackle china’s ever growing presence in IOR region.

3.Strengthening maritime security infrastructure:

Strengthening the Multi-layered Surveillance System, better Harbour defence And Surveillance System and establish as many Joint Operations Centres (JOCs) to tackle threats from both conventional and unconventional sources.

  1. Implement 5 point agenda of UNSC:

The recently adopted 5 point agenda on maritime security by the UNSC shouldbe implemented in letter and spirit .

  1. Creation of International maritime security body:

Efforts should be made for building consensus on the creation of a maritime security body in the UNSC, as proposed by the Russian President.

6.Universal ratification of UNCLOS:

Further, all the countries must become part of Global treaties like UNCLOS in order to foster better cooperation and coordination on maritime security. This would also help in agreeing to a common definition of maritime security.


The simultaneous rise of India and China is an important paradigm shift in the international system. This new paradigm shift will require India to focus on not only land boundaries but also maritime security. They should collaborate with each other in the spirit of the UN charter, which involves respecting sovereignty, non-intervention in internal affairs, and settling disputes through dialogue.


5) The DRDO’s Counter-Drone System was deployed during Independence day and republic day in recent times to counter the threat of drone attacks by terrorists. However, India’s counter drone capability is still in its nascent stage to neutralise any future drone attacks. In the light of the statement, analyse potential airspace security risks and challenges associated with drones and mention measures to neutralize this asymmetric warfare?

[GS3-SECURITY-Role of external and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security]


  1. Introduction
  2. Airspace security risks and challenges associated with drone attacks
  3. Steps taken by India for drone regulation
  4. Measures to neutralize asymmetric warfare
  5. conclusion


Last year two low-intensity improvised explosive devices dropped by drones went off in a highly secure Indian Air Force base in Jammu, about 14 km off the International Border. This new avatar of terrorism in the form of a small drone has far more devastating capabilities which jeopardize India’s airspace security.

Airspace security risks and challenges associated with drone attacks:

  1. Targeted Physical Attacks / Asymmetric Warfare: Offered so much to the terrorists at so low a cost. More than that it provides anonymity and safety.

Ex:  Attack on an Indian military facility at the Air Force base in Jammu 

  1. Kinetic Attack: In this scenario, an attacker might strap guns or explosives to a drone and fly it into people or structures to inflict physical damage or loss of life.
  1. Cyber security threat: Even hobby drones can carry small Raspberry Pi computers. These can be programmed to Spoof Wi-Fi signals and Steal Data.
  1. Reconnaissance and Surveillance: Using of drones to reconnoitre targets for attack or monitor the actions of individuals or law enforcement.
  1. Privacy Invasion: Drones can carry a camera and can record images – and voice – from places inaccessible to a human eavesdropper or militant activist.

6. Cross border Smuggling: Multiple cases where criminal organizations or individuals have used drones to smuggle illicit material, usually across borders or into prisons. Ex. In January 2021, the Jammu and Kashmir Police caught two persons as they were picking up drone-dropped arms consignment.

Steps taken by India for drone regulation:

The Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA) published the Drone Rules, 2021 which guides drone regulation in India. Key aspects of it,

1.Digital sky Platform: To obtain the authorisation to establish a Remote Pilot Training Organisation (RPTO) shall submit an application to the Director General of Civil Aviation on the Digital Sky Platform .

  1. Drone categories: Registration is required for all but the Nano category.
  • Nano: Less than or equal to 250 grams
  • Micro: From 250 grams to 2kg
  • Small: From 2kg to 25kg
  • Medium: From 25kg to 150kg
  • Large: Greater than 150kg
  1. No flight permission: No permission required for operating drones in green zones.

Green zone means the airspace upto a vertical distance of 400 feet or 120 metre that has not been designated as a red zone or yellow zone in the airspace map;.

4.Drone corridors : Developed for cargo deliveries.

  1. Drone promotion council: To be set up to facilitate a business-friendly regulatory regime.
  2. Issuance of Certificate of Airworthiness: By Quality Council of India and certification entities authorised by it.

Measures to neutralize asymmetric warfare:

  1. Upgrading Security Technology: Existing military radars cannot pick up the signatures of small drones for which special radars are required. 
  1. Counter-Drone technology: Need to develop and mass produce soft kill counter drone system or non-kinetic measures and The kinetic measures or hard-kill counter drone system. 

Soft kill counter drone system uses jammers to disrupt the communication of the drones, disrupting the GPS signals. Ex. NINJA system, or Negation of Improvised Non-state Joint Aerial-threats, used by the US Air Force

Hard-kill counter drone system include the use of bullets or guns to disrupt the mechanisms of drones.

Ex: DRDO’s D4 counter drone system employs both hard kill and soft kill measures

  1. Strict Enforcement of Drone Rules 2021: Safety and security features like ‘No permission – no takeoff’ (NPNT), real-time tracking beacon, geo-fencing etc. to be notified as early as possible. 
  1. Effective implementation of National Counter Rogue Drone Guidelines 2019’ and ‘Counter Rogue Drone Deployment Plan’: For better prevention, deterrence and denial and ‘active means’ of detection, interruption and destruction of rogue drones.


With shifting warfare and drones taking centre-stage, it’s time for India to showcase and strengthen its technological capabilities as well as have a long-term policy for novel technologies.


6) National Investigation Agency (NIA) plays a very important role in fulfilling the goal of a terror-free India and zero tolerance against terrorism. Mention the role and mandate of National Investigation Agency , challenges faced by it and suggest measures to strengthen its terror related investigation and counter terrorism strategies?

[GS3-SECURITY-Various security forces and agencies and their mandate]


  1. Introduction
  2. Role and mandate of NIA
  3. Challenges faced by NIA
  4. Measures to strengthen its role
  5. way forward


The NIA came into existence with the enactment of the National Investigation Agency Act 2008 after the deadly 26/11 terror attack in Mumbai. It is elite agency dedicated towards the investigation and prosecution of offences affecting sovereignty, security and integrity of India. It is the designated National Counter Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency in India.

Role and mandate of NIA:

  1. It is a central agency to investigate and prosecute offences:
    1. affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India, security of State, friendly relations with foreign States.
    2. against atomic and nuclear facilities.
    3. smuggling in High-Quality Counterfeit Indian Currency.
  1. The amendments to the NIA Act,2019 has brought the offences related to the smuggling in High-Quality Counterfeit Indian Currency under the definition of a terrorist Act.
  2. To curb various aspects of terrorist financing, a Terror Funding , Fake Currency, Human trafficking, Offences under the Explosive Substances Act, 1908
  3. It aims to be a thoroughly professional investigative agency matching the best international standards at the national level, by developing into a highly trained, partnership-oriented workforce.
  4. It aims to discourage the existing and potential terrorist groups/individuals.
  5. It aims to develop as a storehouse of terrorist related information
  6. The agency aims to match the best international standards in counter terrorism and other national security related investigations at the national level by developing into a highly trained, partnership oriented workforce.

Challenges faced by NIA:

  1. Police a state list subject:
    • Under schedule VII of the Constitution, the maintenance of public order and police forces are matters of state list.
    • However, Criminal law forms part of the concurrent list and national security comes under the domains of the union list.
    • Ex. In 2020, chattisgarh government  moved the Supreme Court against the National Investigation Act, 2008 stating it is violate the Constitution and told the apex court the NIA should have no power over state policing matters.
  1. Lack of coordination mechanism: with other specialised agencies like RAW, IB, State police etc. E.g.: Confusion during Pathankot attacks
  2. No dedicated workforce: the officers are recruited from Central State police, Central armed police forces on deputation.
  3. Lack of experts: to deal with the cybercrimes which taken place from outside the country.
  4. Technology dependence: dependent on foreign imports for its counter terrorism operations.

Measures to strengthen its role:

  1. Financial and operational autonomy similar to CAPF.
  2. 2. Appointment of judges of special courts: Should be appointed by CJI/Chief justice of High court to avoid question of partiality and state interference and address vacancies in special courts
  3. skilled manpower and ethical hackers: To investigate cyber-crimes of trans-border nature
  4. Need of national security doctrine: The doctrine should be accompanied by a security strategy that should spell out the state response to various kinds of security challenges.

5.Effective counter-terrorism and counter -radicalism cell:  To tackle effective response against fundamentalist indoctrination through internet and social media .

  1. Adopt and implement UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in both letter and spirit.

Way forward:

NIA should also set its goals for the next 25 years and prepare a roadmap to achieve its goals in the four pillars of the anti-terrorism operations which are,

  1. To coordinate sharing of all terrorism related information with police and agencies of all States,
  2. strengthen anti-terror laws,
  • give power to anti-terrorist institutions and
  1. 100 percent conviction in terror cases.

NIA should institutionalize the systems, information and methods of use of information for its further progress counter-terrorism investigation and law enforcement.

7) Though India and Pakistan relationship is going ebb and flow in the recent times, LOC trade could act as a ray of hope and curtain raiser in resetting the ties between two countries. Discuss

[GS3-SECURITY-Role of external and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security]


  1. Introduction
  2. Importance of LoC trade
  3. Reasons for cessation of LoC trade
  4. LoC trade – a ray of hope and curtain raiser
  5. way forward
  6. conclusion


It was in 1972 that the Line of Control (LoC) between India and Pakistan was conceived as a part of the Shimla Agreement. Cross-LoC trade is one of the Four-point proposal of Confidence Building measures(CBMs) agreed in 2008.

After the aftermath of pulawama terror strike in 2019, Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in April 2019 suspended the cross-LoC trade in Jammu and Kashmir citing “funnelling of illegal weapons, narcotics and fake currency” as reasons.

Importance of LoC trade

  1. Livelihood: Importance of economics of the people on either sides of the region. As per a study conducted by the Bureau of Research on Industry and Economic Fundamentals (BRIEF), between 2008 and 2019, 2 crores paid to labourers.
  2. Trade Value: As per a study conducted by the BRIEF, between 2008 and 2019, trade worth Rs 7,500 crore was recorded at these two points. Suspension of trade increased the informal trade through third country.
  3. To reduce the effect of Pandemic: pandemic exacerbated the economic instability in the already militant affected region.
  4. Direct and Indirect employment: The trade period between 2008 and 2019  generated over 1,70,000 job days and employment to 20,000 people directly and indirectly.
  5. Strengthened relations between India and Pakistan: Many separated families living on both sides of the LoC. The trade had become a binding force.
  6. Security concerns: Since the trade suspension, the youth who worked as labourers turned to militancy.

Reasons for cessation of LoC trade:

  1. Nexus between trading concerns and terrorist organisations: Significant number of trading concerns engaged in LoC trade are being operated by persons closely associated with banned terrorist organizations involved in fuelling terrorism/separatism.
  2. Issue of third party trade: Increase in third party trade and products from other regions, including foreign countries, are finding their way through this route.
  1. Conduit for hawala money and weapons: Unscrupulous and anti national elements are using the route as a conduit for Hawala money, drugs and weapons, under the garb of this trade.
  2. Increased cross border movement of militants: Some individuals have crossed over to Pakistan, and joined militant organizations.

LoC trade – a ray of hope and curtain raiser

  1. Improved interactions :To start with, this trade was meant to result in interaction between people and help build partnerships across the two parts of J&K.
  2. Establish economic and commercial interdependence: In the second phase, it would have progressed into an economic and commercial interdependence between the two parts of J&K.
  3. Creation of Trade infrastructure: Finally, it would result in a network of institutions like banks, trade bodies, and regulators across the LoC aligning with each other.
  4. Institutionalisation of relations: In this process, a constituency of commerce for peace and normalisation of relations between India and Pakistan would be built.
  5. Helps to resolve other impending issues: LoC trade was a major Confidence Building Mechanism, and a step towards the resolution of the impending issue of Kashmir crisis.

Way forward:

  • Need for a revised strategy to re-initiate the cross-LoC trade and relook at reviving the CBM’s adopted during simla agreement.
  • Establish very critical reforms in the areas of infrastructure, digitisation of trade, establishing trade talks, dispute settlement mechanism, expanding the trade constituency and revision of standard operating procedure guidelines. 
  • Address long-standing concerns over cross-LoC trade like Clarifications on HS codes to prevent misrepresentation of commodities; setting up a rules of origin framework to avoid import of third-country goods; and trader-registration policies to ensure credibility of the traders


            National security is priority but trade can be resumed by keeping a strong vigil by security and intelligence agencies,” 


8)  Cyber war is already entered a fifth theatre of warfare along with land, sea, air and space. In that arena, How Artificial Intelligence can be considered as both boon or bane for cyber security? Mention measures to carry out effective strategy against cyber attacks.

[GS3-SECURITY- Basics of cyber security ]


  1. Introduction
  2. AI – a bane for cyber security
  3. AI – a boon for cyber security defenders
  4. Effective cyber security strategy
  5. Conclusion


  • Technology is at an inflection point with the advancement in Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning, Big Data, Internet of Things (IoT) etc. and that along with benefiting governments and businesses, it was also being misused by actors with malicious objectives.
  • In India, as per Check Point Research, companies witnessed 1803 cyber-attacks weekly per organisation on an average in 2021. This was a 25 per cent jump over 2020.
  • AI has the potential to change the nature of modern warfare in future.

AI is used both by hackers and defenders who use it to solve complex problems and perform high-level computations.

AI – a bane for cyber security

  1. AI is used to launch faster, stealthier and sophisticated hyper-targeted attacks on the scale.

Ex. Russia linked APT29, a hacker group in March 2020, which breached the computer network of the US Treasury and the Departments of State, Defence, Justice, Commerce, and Homeland Security, besides others. 

  1. Hackers test and improve their malware to make it resistant to AI-based security tools.
  • AI can be used to choose the timing of attack when high traffic volumes are high and more intelligent attacks that self-propagate over a system or network..
  1. Cyber actors use AI-enabled malware programs to learn the computation environment of an organisation automatically, update communication protocols and pinpoint when and where the system is least protected.

AI a boon for cyber security defenders:

  1. AI increases accuracy as it learns from experiences, uses machine learning to reason, recognises images, understands language and nuances, and create perspectives.
  2. AI enables the setting up of self-configuring networks, which prowls through every computer, smart phone, other devices, etc., to detect anomalous activity from identifying malware in an email attachment, to a disgruntled employee downloading sensitive files.
  • AI improves malware detection rates using a baseline of cyber intelligence data.

Ex. Crowdstrike and DarkTrace software which used AI effectively to monitor cyber threats, leading to huge valuations for the parent companies. 

  1. AI cyber security systems can learn from indicators of compromise and may be able to match the characteristics of small clues even if they are scattered throughout the network.
  1. AI detect all types of networks or system intrusion and could also analyse billions of file samples, appraise files for threats, determine whether or not a threat exists and quarantine infected files.
  1. AI could be used to predict the presence of automated bot traffic and automatically block the traffic before it becomes dangerous.
  • Phishing emails could be identified by using AI and ML capabilities to perform an in-depth inspection of links.
  • AI systems could detect vulnerabilities (software bugs) and perform response actions like self-patching. This would strengthen system security by providing network resilience, prevention and protection against cyber threats.

Effective cyber security strategy against cyber attacks:

  1. The Indian Government’s the National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence (NSAI) intends to harness this technology for cyber security and cyber defence is step in right direction.
  1. The government also set up The National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS). It will augment advanced research in next-generation technologies such as AI, Internet of Things, Machine Learning, Deep Learning and Quantum Information Sciences.
  • Country needs a comprehensive national approach and should start by re-examining traditional notions of trust. “Zero trust” is the idea that no untested technology should ever be trusted or barred without verification.
  1. Cyber security must be embedded in a technology’s development phase itself. 
  1. Operators must disclose all of the critical components they deploy in their networks.
  1. Equipment sellers must spell out in detail how they will ensure that their products cannot be used for sabotage, espionage, or terrorism, and failure to meet legally mandated thresholds must invite fine, ban or shutting down of the company.
  • Research is required in countering complex cyber threats, malware reverse engineering and projection to enhance cyber situation awareness.


Cyber security is at the core of the Digital progress of our society. There is a need to have more stringent policies to use AI for the benefit of humans and make groundbreaking discoveries. AI boon or bane depends on the intent of the person whoever wields it.


9) Poverty ,unemployment, lack of development ,insecurity and absence of rule of law  often provide a breeding ground for extremist tendencies. In the light of the statement , How the social ,economic and political dynamics influenced  extremism  in extremist affected areas in India ? Analyze.

[GS3-SECURITY- Linkages between development and extremism]


  1. Introduction
  2. Factors that contribute to extremism
  3. A multi-pronged approach to unshackle prevailing social ,economic and political dynamics
  4. Conclusion


  • Underdevelopment often creates the conditions for insurgency and spread of extremist ideologiesamong the people, who perceive that  they are left out of the developmental efforts of the government.
  • Such perceptions coupled with inefficient and corrupt governancecreate an ideal condition for extremism and militancy.
  • More than lack of development, it is the perception of injustice, misgovernance and inability of the systemto engage the disaffected lot that lead people to violence and extremism.

Factors that contribute to extremism:

  1. Discontent with the government among tribal peoples:
    1. After enactment of the Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980, Tribals who rely on forest products for their livelihood are barred from even harvesting a bark.
    2. Massive tribal population displacement in Naxalism-affected states as a result of development projects, mining operations, and other factors.

Ex: Political patronage received by the extremists was described as a crucial reason behind the persistence of extremism in north east region.

  1. Economic factors: Unemployment, poverty, a lack of health care, a lack of education and awareness, a lack of access to electricity, internet connectivity, and communication, inequality, to name a few issues.

Ex. Unemployment and social insecurity, and economic backwardness of the state as major reasons for growth of Left Wing Extremism. 

  1. Gaps in the country’s population’s socio-economic status: The government gauges its success by the number of violent attacks rather than the progress made in Naxal-infested areas. Ex: several communities are still not effectively connected to any communication network.
  1. Deficiency in governance: Regular administration, absence of administration in remote locations, lack of state government measures to address the problem, poor implementation, and mishandling of government schemes.

Ex. In Assam, the problem of illegal migration is a crucial factor behind emergence of the extremist movements.

  1. Rehabilitation: People are displaced or evicted as a result of development projects. Because tribal areas, such as Orissa and Jharkhand, are rich in mineral resources, tribal people are the most vulnerable to displacement.
  1. Social oppression: Perhaps most major of the problems used by the Naxalite movement is the struggle against the social discrimination usually faced by the Dalits and the lower of the OBCs. 
  2. Delayed Adjudication process :  LWE doctrine affected people believe orchestration of violence by the Naxalite groups is largely a result of the ineffectiveness of peaceful methods of protest and ineffective formal and delayed judicial system. 
  1. Support from external state and non-state actors: In the Northeast, examples of assistance provided to the extremist outfits from foreign sources in the form training, arms, funds as well as provision of safe havens. 

A multi-pronged approach to unshackle prevailing social,economic and political dynamics:

  1. Implementation of protective legislation, schemes and programmes: Effective application of , Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 ,  SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), 2005 , National Policy and Action Plan on LWE, 2015,PESA act and aspirational districts programme.
  2. Appropriate land-related policies: effectively enforce land ceiling regulations, the interests of small and marginal farmers, as well as tribal peasants, must be safeguarded against reverse tenancy. National Rehabilitation & Resettlement Policy, 2007 
  3. Availability of basic social services: Universalization of basic services to standards among the people in this area should be given high priority.
  4. Livelihood security and basic infrastructure: Establishing quality infrastructure, supportive technical services, and efficient market linkages at the village or cluster of village level to promote subsidiary and supported activities in animal husbandry, fisheries, horticulture, sericulture, and poultry.
  5. Good governance and rule of law: Necessity of clean, corruption-free, and accountable administration at all levels.
  6. Capacity building: Capacity building of people, administrative institutions, Government Personnel ,local bodies and NGO’s in extremist affected areas need to be carried out better ouput for the development schemes. SAMADHAN doctrine is a step in right direction. 


            An honest response to extremism therefore must begin by ameliorating the backwardness in social, economic and political dynamics in extremism affected region. Further, an ideology based on violence and annihilation is doomed to fail in a democracy which offers legitimate forums of grievance redressal.



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