Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
- Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is the largest research and development (R&D) organisation in India. CSIR has a pan-India presence and has a dynamic network of 38 national laboratories, 39 outreach centres, 3 Innovation Complexes and 5 units.
- Established: September 1942
- Located: New Delhi
- CSIR is funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology and it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
- CSIR covers a wide spectrum of streams – from radio and space physics, oceanography, geophysics, chemicals, drugs, genomics, biotechnology and nanotechnology to mining, aeronautics, instrumentation, environmental engineering and information technology.
- The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. Its headquarters are located in Brussels, Belgium.
- The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, and the United Kingdom, is considered the precursor to the NATO agreement.
Global Tiger Forum
- In 1993, an International Symposium on Tiger Conservation in New Delhi recommended the formation of an Inter-Governmental International Body that would embark on a Global Campaign for the Protection of Tigers.
- Established in 1994, the Global Tiger Forum (GTF) has its headquarters in New Delhi.
- The General Assembly of GTF meets after every three years.
- It utilises cooperative policies, common approaches, technical expertise, scientific modules and other appropriate programmes.
Light combat helicopters (LCHs)
- Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is a 5.5-tonne class combat helicopter designed and developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) – a Defence Public Sector Undertaking (DPSU).
- It is powered by two Shakti engines and inherits many technical features of the Advanced Light Helicopter.
- LCH has the distinction of being the first attach helicopter to land in Forward Bases at Siachen, 4,700 mts above sea level with 500kg load.
Papum Reserve Forest
- Papum Reserve Forest (RF) is an Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) in Arunachal Pradesh.
- It is located between two IBAs, Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary to the east and Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary to the west.
- Papum Reserve Forest forms part of the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area. A large part of the site is covered by Subtropical Dry Evergreen and Semi-evergreen Forests, while the higher areas are under Subtropical Broadleaf Hill Forest cover.
- Papum RF is a nesting habitat of three species of the large, colourful fruit-eating hornbills: Great, Wreathed and Oriental Pied. The 862 sq.km.
- The Malabar pied hornbill is a common resident breeder in India and Sri Lanka. Its habitat is evergreen and moist deciduous forests, often near human settlements.
- This species is omnivorous, taking fruits, small mammals, birds, small reptiles, insects etc. Prey is killed and swallowed whole.
- It is Near Threatened as per the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species