Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

Important Terms in 19th September -2020 News



  • Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMC) is the marketing boards established by the state governments in order to eliminate the exploitation incidences of the farmers by the intermediaries, where they are forced to sell their produce at extremely low prices.
  • Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) is a system operating under the State Government since agricultural marketing is a State subject.
  • The APMC has Yards/Mandis in the market area that regulates the notified agricultural produce and livestock.


Peaceful Nuclear Explosions:

  • Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) are nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes.
  • The US proposed to prohibit PNE rights and instead offered to provide the technology on a commercial basis.
  • The Indian representatives consistently termed the offer as ‘atomic apartheid’ and ‘commercial super-monopoly,’ and insisted that PNE rights need to be integral to all peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
  • India conducted its first PNE in 1974 in opposition to this discriminatory principle.



  • Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) is the informal strategic dialogue between India, USA, Japan and Australia with a shared objective to ensure and support a “free, open and prosperous” Indo-Pacific region.
  • The four countries already did exercise together along with Singapore as part of Exercise MALABAR – which initially began as a bilateral naval exercise between the United States and India – back in 2007. Then Japan participated and was made a permanent member of the Malabar exercises



  • The Union Public Service Commission of India was constituted by the British Government during the British rule.
  • The Lee Commission, in 1924 had suggested in its report for the creation of an unprejudiced and independent Public Service Commission.
  • On the basis of such suggestions, the Union Public Service Commission was constituted in 1926.
  • According to Article 315 of the Indian constitution, there shall be a permanent UPSC (Union Public Service Commission).
  • This body will conduct exam to appoint candidates to different posts of Indian Civil Services under the government of India.
  • Article 315 to 323 of the Indian Constitution deals with the appointment of UPSC members, functions and powers of UPSC.


National Green Tribunal:

  • It is a specialised body set up under the National Green Tribunal Act (2010) for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources.
  • With the establishment of the NGT, India became the third country in the world to set up a specialised environmental tribunal, only after Australia and New Zealand, and the first developing country to do so.
  • NGT is mandated to make disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing of the same.
  • The NGT has five places of sittings, New Delhi is the Principal place of sitting and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai are the other four.



  • The Mission envisages promoting holistic growth of bamboo sector by adopting area-based, regionally differentiated strategy and to increase the area under bamboo cultivation and marketing.
  • The Mission envisages promoting holistic growth of bamboo sector by adopting area-based, regionally differentiated strategy and to increase the area under bamboo cultivation and marketing.

Funding Pattern:

  • 60:40 between Centre and State Govt. for all States (excepting NE & Hilly states),
  • 90:10 for the NE & Hilly States, and
  • 100% for Union Territories/R&D Institutes/Bamboo Technology Support Groups (BTSGs) and National Level Agencies.



  • The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional organization which was established to promote political and social stability amid rising tensions among the Asia-Pacific’s post-colonial states.
  • The motto of ASEAN is “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”.
  • It was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the founding fathers of ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
  • Ten members: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

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