Cost Inflation Index:
- It is used to estimate the increase in the prices of goods and assets year-by-year due to inflation.
- It is calculated to match the prices to the inflation rate. In simple words, an increase in the inflation rate over time will lead to a rise in the prices.
- Cost Inflation Index = 75% of the average rise in the Consumer Price Index (urban) for the immediately preceding year.
- Consumer Price Index compares the current price of a basket of goods and services (which represent the economy) with the cost of the same basket of goods and services in the previous year to calculate the increase in prices.
- The Central Government specifies CII by notifying in the official gazette.
- Kary Mullis, the American biochemist invented the PCR technique. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1993.
- Under this, copies of a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are created using an enzyme called Polymerase.
- The ‘chain reaction’ signifies how the DNA fragments are copied, exponentially — one is copied into two, the two are copied into four, and so on.
- A fluorescent DNA binding dye called the “probe” is added to DNA, which shows the presence of the virus on a fluorometer.
- Since coronavirus is made of RNA (ribonucleic acid), therefore to detect coronavirus, RNA is converted into DNA using a technique called reverse transcription.
- A ‘reverse transcriptase’ enzyme converts the RNA into DNA.
- Copies of the DNA are then made and amplified.
- Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN) was launched as a regional connectivity scheme (RCS) under the Ministry of Civil Aviation in 2016.
- To develop the regional aviation market.
- To provide affordable, economically viable and profitable air travel on regional routes to the common man even in small towns.
- It envisages providing connectivity to un-served and under-served airports of the country through the revival of existing airstrips and airports.