Indian Coast Guard:
- The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) protects India’s maritime interests and enforces maritime law
- It has jurisdiction over the territorial waters of India, including its contiguous zone and exclusive economic zone.
- The Indian Coast Guard was formally established on 18 August 1978 by the Coast Guard Act, 1978 of the Parliament of India as an independent Armed force of India.
- It is responsible for marine environment protection in maritime zones of India and is coordinating authority for response to oil spills in Indian waters.
- It operates under the Ministry of Defence
- SCO is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation.
- It’s a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation aiming to maintain peace, security and stability in the region.
- It was created in 2001.
- The SCO Charter was signed in 2002, and entered into force in 2003.
- It is a statutory document which outlines the organisation’s goals and principles, as well as its structure and core activities.
- The SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.
- The LAC is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory.
- It is divided into three sectors: the eastern sector which includes Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, the middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and the western sector in Ladakh.
- LAC in the eastern sector consisting of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim is called the 1McMahon Line which is 1,140 km long.
- The McMahon Line was a negotiation between India and Tibet under Simla Convention of 1913-1914, without the participation of the Chinese government and China considers the McMahon Line illegal and unacceptable.
Second world war:
- World War II, also called Second World War, was a conflict that involved virtually every part of the world during the years 1939–45.
- The principal belligerents were the Axis powers—Germany, Italy, and Japan—and the Allies—France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and, to a lesser extent, China.
- It was the biggest conflict in history that had lasted almost six years.
Nation al Food Security Act,2013:
- The objective is to provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity.
- The Act also contains provisions for setting up of grievance redressal mechanism at the District and State levels.
- The Act provides for coverage of up-to 75% of the rural population and up-to 50% of the urban population for receiving subsidized food-grains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), thus covering about two-thirds of the population.
- An oil spill refers to any uncontrolled release of crude oil, gasoline, fuels, or other oil by-products into the environment. Oil spills can pollute land, air, or water, though it is mostly used for oceanic oil spills.
- They have become a major environmental problem, chiefly as a result of intensified petroleum exploration and production on continental shelves and the transport of large amounts of oils in vessels.