- Precision agriculture (PA) is an approach where inputs are utilised in precise amounts to get increased average yields, compared to traditional cultivation techniques such as agroforestry, intercropping, crop rotation, etc.
- Sustainable PA is this century’s most valuable innovation in farm management that is based on using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).
- It is based on sustainable agriculture and healthy food production and it consists of profitability and increasing production, economic efficiency and the reduction of side effects on the environment.
- It is a neuro-muscular illness caused by Botulinum (natural toxin) that is produced by bacteria, Clostridium botulinum.
- The bacteria are commonly found in the soil, rivers, and seawater. It affects both humans and animals.
- The bacteria also need anaerobic (absence of oxygen) conditions and do not grow in acidic conditions.
- The illness affects the nervous system of birds, leading to paralysis in their legs and wings.
- The outbreaks of avian botulism tend to occur when average temperatures are above 21 degrees celsius, and during droughts.
National Anti Doping Agency:
- Wet up as registered society under the Societies Registration Act of 1890 on November 24, 2005 with a mandate for Dope free sports in India.
- The primary objectives are to implement anti-doping rules as per WADA code, regulate dope control programme, to promote education and research and creating awareness about doping and its ill effects.
Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations:
- CEPI is an international non-governmental organisation funded by the Wellcome Trust, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the European Commission, and eight countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Ethiopia, Germany, Japan, Norway, and the UK).
- Launched in 2017, its mission is to stimulate and accelerate the development of vaccines against emerging infectious diseases and enable access to these vaccines for people during outbreaks.
- India has successfully flight-tested its indigenously developed Supersonic Missile Assisted Release of Torpedo (SMART) from a test range off Odisha coast.
- SMART is a missile assisted release of lightweight anti-submarine torpedo system for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations far beyond torpedo range.
- An adjuvant is a pharmacological or immunological agent that improves the immune response of a vaccine. Adjuvants may be added to a vaccine to boost the immune response to produce more antibodies and longer-lasting immunity, thus minimizing the dose of antigen needed.