1)Hypersonic cruise vehicle:
- Hypersonic vehicles fly faster than five times the speed of sound.
- This can enable faster access to space, rapid military response at long range, and even commercial air travel.
- Traditionally, rocket boosters have been used for hypersonic vehicles.
- A hypersonic vehicle can be an airplane, missile, or spacecraft.
The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is one of the premier Central Armed Police Forces of India (under the Ministry of Home Affairs) for internal security. The other Central Armed Police Forces are as follow:
- Assam Rifles (AR): The Assam Rifles came into being in 1835, as a militia called the ‘Cachar Levy’.
- Border Security Force (BSF): Responsible for guarding India’s land borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh.
- Central Industrial Security Force (CISF): Provides security cover to nuclear installations, space establishments, airports, seaports, power plants, sensitive Government buildings and ever heritage monuments.
- Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP): ITBP is a specialized mountain force and most of the officers and men are professionally trained mountaineers and skiers.
- National Security Guard (NSG): The National Security Guard (NSG) is a counter terrorism unit which was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star.
- Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB): Earlier Special Service Bureau was raised in 1960s with the sole objective of achieving ‘Total security preparedness’ in the remote border areas for performing a ‘stay-behind’ role in the event of a war.
- The LAC is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory.
- For India the LAC is 3,488 km long, while China considers it to be only around 2,000 km.
- It is divided into three sectors: the eastern sector which includes Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, the middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and the western sector in Ladakh.
- LAC in the eastern sector consisting of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim is called the 1McMahon Line which is 1,140 km long.
- The McMahon Line was a negotiation between India and Tibet under Simla Convention of 1913-1914, without the participation of the Chinese government and China considers the McMahon Line illegal and unacceptable.
- First Information Report (FIR) is a written document prepared by the police when they receive information about the commission of a cognizable offence.
- It is a report of information that reaches the police first in point of time and that is why it is called the First Information Report.
- The India Meteorological Department (IMD) is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India.
- It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology.
- It is national meteorological service of the country and chief government agency dealing in everything related to meteorology, seismology and associated subjects.