Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) Survey in Jharkhand
#GS1 #Issues regarding Children and Health
Context: Over 55% did not get nutrition under ICDS in 159 Jharkhand blocks.
How Vulnerable is Jharkhand?
- In Jharkhand, 11.26 lakh children are in the age group six months to three years and 15.78 lakh children in three to six years of age group, and 7.21 lakh pregnant and lactating mothers.
- As per National Family Health Survey-4 data, every second child in the state is stunted and underweight and every third child is affected by stunting and every 10th child is affected from severe wasting and around 70% children are anaemic.
- According to a recent survey, more than 55% did not receive Supplementary Nutrition under Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) in Jharkhand even once in the first six months of 2021.
About Integrated Child Development Scheme:
- The scheme was started in 1975 and aims at the holistic development of children and empowerment of mother.
- It is a Centrally-Sponsored scheme.
- The scheme primarily runs through the Anganwadi centre.
- The scheme is under the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
- Tenth Five Year Plan also linked ICDS to Anganwadi centres established mainly in rural areas and staffed with frontline workers.
- Supplementary Nutrition includes Take Home Ration (THR), Hot Cooked Meal and morning snacks and holds importance for many vulnerable households as it impacts the nutritional outcome of the children.
Six Schemes under Umbrella ICDS:
- Anganwadi Services Scheme:
- It is a unique programme for early childhood care and development.
- For Children in the age group of 0-6 years, pregnant women and lactating mothers.
- The ICDS provide for anganwadis or day-care centres which deliver a package of six services including:
- Supplementary nutrition
- Health checkup
- Referral services
- Pre-school education(Non-Formal)
- Nutrition and Health information
- Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana:
- It provides cash incentive amounting to Rs.5,000/- in three installments directly to the Bank/Post Office Account of Pregnant Women and Lactating Mother (PW&LM) in DBT (Direct Benefit Transfer) Mode during pregnancy and lactation in response to individual fulfilling specific conditions.
- National Creche Scheme: (earlier named as Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme)
- It provides day care facilities to children of age group of 6 months to 6 years of working women.
- The facilities are provided for seven and half hours a day for 26 days in a month.
- Children are provided with supplementary nutrition, early childcare education, and health and sleeping facilities.
- Scheme for Adolescent Girls:
- It primarily aims at breaking the inter-generational life-cycle of nutritional and gender disadvantage and providing a supportive environment for self-development.
- It aims at out of school girls in the age group 11-14, to empower and improve their social status through nutrition, life skills and home skills.
- The scheme has nutritional and non-nutritional components which include nutrition; iron and folic acid supplementation; health check-up and referral service; nutrition and health education; mainstreaming out of school girls to join formal schooling bridge course/ skill training; life skill education, home management etc,; counselling/ guidance on accessing public services.
- Child Protection Scheme:
- It institutionalizes the essential services and strengthen structures for emergency outreach, institutional care, family and community-based care, counselling and support services at the national, regional, state and district levels
- Educate public and raise public awareness regarding child protection schemes, services.
- Proper Coordination of inter-sectoral response at all levels.
- POSHAN Abhiyaan:
- The programme seeks to improve nutritional outcomes for children, pregnant women and lactating mothers.
- Launched in 2018 with specific targets to be achieved by 2022.
It aims to reduce:
- Stunting and wasting by 2% a year (total 6% until 2022) among children.
- Anaemia by 3% a year (total 9%) among children, adolescent girls and pregnant women and lactating mothers.
- The target of the mission is to bring down stunting among children in the age group 0-6 years from 38.4% to 25% by 2022.
Objectives of ICDS:
- To improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age-group 0-6 years.
- To lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child.
- To reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout.
- To achieve effective coordination of policy and implementation amongst the various departments to promote child development.
- To enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child.
- To facilitate, educate and empower Adolescent Girls (AGs) so as to enable them to become self-reliant and aware citizens.
- For nutritional purposes ICDS provides 500 kilocalories (with 12-15 grams of protein) every day to every child below 6 years of age.
- For adolescent girls it is up to 500 kilo calories with up to 25 grams of protein every day.
- The services of Immunisation, Health Check-up and Referral Services delivered through Public Health Infrastructure under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.