CURRENT AFFAIRS 13th December 2021
Daily Current affairs – Topics
- Constituent Assembly’s-1st meeting 75 years ago on December 9, 1946
- Protests in Balochistan
- UN confers Observer Status on International Solar Alliance (ISA)
- Rule 193 of Lok Sabha
- Earth’s Black Box
1.Constituent Assembly’s-1st meeting 75 years ago on December 9, 1946.
#GS1-Modern Indian History, #GS 2 Polity and Governance
- The Constituent Assembly of India met for the first time on December 9, 1946, 75 years ago.
In depth information
What should you know about India’s Constituent Assembly?
- MN Roy proposed the idea of a constituent assembly for the first time.
- For the first time in 1935, the Indian National Congress (INC) called for a constituent assembly to draft a constitution for India.
- ‘The constitution of free India must be established, without outside intervention, by a constituent assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise,’ J Nehru said emphatically about the constitution in 1938.
- The British accepted the demand for a constituent assembly for the first time in their ‘August offer’ of 1940.
- The Cabinet Mission plan eventually resulted in the formation of a constituent assembly.
- It was established in 1946.
The following are some of the most crucial components of this:
- The assembly’s total strength is 389 pounds.
- British India received 296 seats, while princely states received 93 seats.
- Eleven governor’s provinces and four chief commissioner’s provinces were to make up the 292 seats allotted to British India.
- Seats were assigned based on the proportion of the population in each area.
- The three main communities—Muslims, Sikhs, and everyone else—were to select how many seats each British province would get.
- Members of each community were to elect representatives in the provincial legislative assembly, and voting was to be done using the proportional representation method with a single transferable vote.
- The heads of princely states were to nominate representatives for these princely states.
The following are some observations about the composition:
- Partially elected, partially appointed.
- Indirect election by provincial assemblies, who were elected on a limited franchise themselves.
- Despite being an indirect method of election, it featured representatives from all walks of life.
- The Muslim League did not attend the initial meeting.
- Over the course of two years, 11 months, and 18 days, the Constituent Assembly convened 11 sessions.
- On January 24, 1950, the constituent assembly had its final session.
- Because members were not directly elected, it was not a representative body.
- Because it was created on British orders, it was not a sovereign entity.
- The constitution took an excessive amount of time to draught.
- The congress party controlled the majority of the seats.
- It was dominated to a greater extent by lawyer-politicians.
- It was primarily Hindus who ruled it.
2.Protests in Balochistan
#GS2-India and its neighbourhood
- Protests have been ongoing in Gwadar, Balochistan, in recent weeks over major development plans for the port city as part of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.
- The demonstrators wanted to call attention to the local people’s marginalisation in the port’s growth.
- Pakistan claims that India is aiding and abetting these demonstrations.
In depth information
What is the location of Balochistan?
- One of Pakistan’s four provinces is Balochistan.
- Despite having the biggest land area, it is the least inhabited province.
- Baloch people, who can be found across modern-day Iran and Afghanistan, make up the bulk of the Baloch population in Balochistan.
- Balochistan, rich in natural gas and oil reserves, is one of Pakistan’s most important provinces.
The Uprising in Balochistan
- The Kingdom of Balochistan was given the option of joining India, Pakistan, or remaining independent during the British retreat from the Indian subcontinent.
- The king of Balochistan elected to remain independent, and the country did so for more than a year.
- In 1948, the Pakistani government seized control of the region and incorporated it into Pakistan using a combination of military and diplomatic tactics.
- Due to a lack of development and human rights violations in the province by the Pakistani military and terror groups, the insurgency in Balochistan has been active since 1948.
- Pakistan believes that India has supplied these rebel fighters with weaponry and intelligence.
In Balochistan, what is India’s position?
- India has traditionally maintained a policy of not interfering in the internal affairs of Pakistan or any other country.
- India has stayed silent on the Balochistan issue, despite Pakistan’s constant comparisons to the Kashmir issue over the years.
- However, remarks about Balochistan were made shortly after Pakistan’s Independence Day festivities in 2016, which were dedicated to the independence of Kashmir.
- India’s response was swift, with Prime Minister Narendra Modi highlighting the atrocities against the Baloch people in his 2016 Independence speech.
- The CPEC, which began operations in 2015, is the centrepiece of China’s multibillion-dollar Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), a pet project of Chinese President Xi Jinping aimed at increasing Beijing’s global influence through China-funded infrastructure projects.
- Highways, trains, and pipelines make up the 3,000-kilometer China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).
- Through a huge network of highways and railways, CPEC aspires to connect the city of Gwadar in South Western Pakistan to China’s North Western region of Xinjiang.
- The proposed project will be financed using significantly subsidised loans from Chinese banks, which will be disbursed to the Pakistani government.
Why is India concerned, though?
It makes its way through PoK.
- CPEC is based on a Chinese strategy to secure and shorten supply routes through Gwadar, as well as a stronger presence in the Indian Ocean. As a result, it is widely assumed that, after CPEC is completed, a large Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean will weaken India’s power.
- It is also being said that if CPEC succeeds in transforming Pakistan’s economy, it will be a “red rag” for India, which will continue to be the recipient of a wealthier and stronger Pakistan.
- Furthermore, India has a significant trust deficit with both China and Pakistan, as well as a history of violence with both. As a result, despite calls for a more pragmatic approach to the project, no advocate has been able to overcome the fundamental threads of conflict that continue to plague India’s relations with China and Pakistan.
3.UN confers Observer Status on International Solar Alliance (ISA)
#GS3- Environmental Pollution & Degradation
- The International Solar Alliance was recently granted Observer Status by the United Nations General Assembly (ISA)
In depth information
- ‘Observer Status’ has a lot of meaning.
- Non-members are granted observer status by some organisations, allowing them to participate in the operations of the organisation.
- Non-member parties and international nongovernmental organisations (INGO) with an interest in the IGO’s activities are frequently granted it by intergovernmental organisations (IGO).
- Observers are often restricted in their participation in the IGO, as they are unable to vote or offer resolutions.
About International Solar Alliance (ISA)
- The ISA was conceived as a collaborative initiative between India and France to mobilise efforts to combat climate change by deploying solar energy technologies.
- It was presented by the leaders of the two countries during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in 2015.
- India is the country’s headquarters.
- The Assembly is the ISA’s highest decision-making body. It meets on an annual basis at the Ministerial level at the ISA’s headquarters.
- Membership: The ISA Framework Agreement has been signed and ratified by 80 nations, with 101 countries having only signed it.
- ISA is a specialised platform for government, multilateral organisations, industry, and other stakeholders to work together to achieve a similar purpose.
- It aids member countries in securing appropriate bilateral and multilateral funding.
- ISA does not supply cash or technology directly, but it does assist in the creation of conditions that enable large-scale funding, development, and deployment of solar applications.
- To realise the shared aim of increasing the usage and quality of solar energy in fulfilling the energy demands of potential ISA member countries in a safe, easy, economical, equitable, and long-term manner.
- By 2030, more than USD 1000 billion in investments will have been mobilised.
- Reduce the cost of financing to encourage member countries to participate in solar energy by developing innovative financial methods and securing funding from institutions;
- Facilitate collaborative solar energy research and development (R&D) initiatives among member countries.
- Promote the creation of a single cyber platform for member countries to connect, collaborate, and share ideas.
- Raising funds to promote solar energy among members is a difficult task.
- The Alliance doesn’t have much money of its own. Multilateral financial institutions such as the Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank, and New Development Bank, for example, have diverse priorities.
- The cost of power is made up of two parts. The payment for the number of units of power purchased is known as the variable cost.
- In addition, the customer must contribute a specific amount to the solar supply’s fixed cost.
- Solar energy is only available throughout the day when the sun is shining. As a result, storing electricity is a difficult task.
- Solar energy must overcome transmission bottlenecks.
- Electricity transmission across borders necessitates the construction of transmission lines from the producer to the consumption country. These lines must be dedicated to particular countries.
Availability during peak hours:
- Electricity demand is highest in the morning and evening, referred to as “peak hours.” It can, however, be made when the sun is shining.
- Solar panels include silicon, which may be recycled. The task at hand is to devise methods for reusing silicon in the production of fresh panels.
- India could be the driving force behind the creation of an international electricity transmission infrastructure.
- Due to rapidly increasing demand, a revolution in solar energy deployment is underway. As a result, it is necessary to do research in order to minimise the cost of electricity storage.
- India should take the lead in establishing a new multilateral bank dedicated to solar energy promotion.
- A solar power trash recycling business might be built in the same way that shipbreaking is done. India needs to spend money on research into repurposing silicon from old solar panels.
- The International Solar Alliance, in particular, might help India and the rest of the world achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (ISA).
4. Rule 193 of Lok Sabha
#GS2- Parliament & State Legislatures
- The Lok Sabha is now debating Climate Change in accordance with Rule 193.
In depth information
Concerning the rule
- The introduction of a formal motion before the House is not required for discussions under this rule.
- As a result, there is no voting after a discussion of the topics covered by this rule.
- “The Member who gives notice may make a brief speech, and those Members who have already informed the Speaker may be authorised to participate in the discussion,” it adds.
- The Member who initiates the debate has no right to respond.
- The Minister in question responds briefly at the conclusion of the session.
5. Earth’s Black Box
#GS3- Environment, Climate Change
- By establishing a black box of the globe, Australian scientists and artists hope to hold the rest of the world accountable for their activities.
In depth information
- The box will be built in Tasmania, an island state off Australia’s south coast.
- It will be composed of 3-inch thick steel and solar panels will cover it.
- It will function similarly to a plane’s flight recorder, which documents the final minutes of a plane’s flight before it crashes.
- Earth’s Black Box’s storage drives are expected to last between 30 and 50 years.
- The black box will be about the size of a city bus, with storage drives inside that will record climate change dialogues as well as ambient CO2 levels and average temperatures.
What kind of data is collected by the Box?
- Two sorts of data will be collected and kept inside the monolith.
- It will collect data on climate change, including land and marine temperature readings, animal extinction, energy consumption, human population, ocean acidification, and atmospheric CO2 levels.
- It will collect contextual data such as newspaper headlines, trending stories, key news articles, and social media updates.
The reasons for Tasmania’s selection are as follows:
- The island of Tasmania was chosen for its relative geopolitical and environmental safety, and the monolith will be built to survive natural disasters like cyclones and earthquakes, as well as vandalism thanks to its sloped walls.
What Is Its Importance?
- The usage of a black box will actually help to prevent a big climate change disaster.
- Climate change is one of humanity’s greatest threats, worsening economic and health disparities, increasing the frequency and intensity of natural disasters, and jeopardising the global food supply.
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