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Daily Current Affairs

Sarat Chandra IAS Academy -UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 15th December – 2021

CURRENT AFFAIRS 15-12-2021

Daily Current Affairs – Topics

  • Climate Change & Infectious Diseases
  • Governor’s Role in State Universities
  • Jammu and Kashmir Delimitation Panel
  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
  • Supersonic Missile Assisted Release of Torpedo(SMART)

 

 

1. Climate Change & Infectious Diseases

#GS3-Environmental Pollution & Degradation

Context

  • According to a recent study published in the journal ‘Science of the Total Environment,’ climate change factors were responsible for 9-18 percent of all infectious illness cases.
  • Climate change caused by human activities may jeopardise public health achievements made in recent years, particularly in countries like India, which is high on the list of climate-vulnerable nations.

In depth information

The following are some of the report’s highlights:

  • Children’s Vulnerability: It is anticipated that children will suffer the majority of the disease burden caused by climate change around the world, with the poorest being disproportionately affected.
  • The increased risk associated with children is attributable to a mix of physiological susceptibility and exposure risk.
  • Climate variables such as temperature, humidity, rainfall, sun radiation, and wind speed were found to be significantly linked to infectious diseases such as gastrointestinal, respiratory, vector-borne, and skin disorders.
  • Impact: Child anthropometry (the study of the measures and proportions of the human body) and socioeconomic conditions altered the climate-disease link, with a large number of children suffering from stunting, wasting, and underweight conditions.

Climate Change and Infectious Diseases: An Example

  • Malaria is a major public health issue, and it appears that it will be the vector-borne disease most affected by long-term climate change.
  • In malaria-endemic locations, the incidence of malaria fluctuates according to the season. In India, for example, the link between malaria and extreme climatic occurrences has long been researched.
  • Malaria epidemics were common in the Punjab region, which was watered by rivers, in the early twentieth century.
  • Excessive monsoon rainfall and excessive humidity were discovered early on to be a crucial factor in mosquito breeding and survival.
  • According to recent studies, the chance of a malaria epidemic increases fivefold in the year following an El Nio occurrence.

The significance of this research

  • The study’s findings will aid in drawing the attention of government and policymakers to the importance of prioritising good child health measures, since the current association may raise disease burden in the future under climate-change scenarios.

Next Steps

  • Climate change is predicted to have a significant impact on infectious disease transmission patterns. As a result, more information about the underlying complicated causal relationships is needed, and this knowledge may be used to anticipate future consequences using more detailed, better validated, and integrated models.
  • Because the current connection may raise illness burden in the future under climate-change scenarios in an already malnourished paediatric population through numerous pathways, governments and policymakers must prioritise effective child health policies.

 

2. Governor’s Role in State Universities

#GS2- Federalism

Context

  • The reappointment of Gopinath Ravindran as Vice Chancellor of Kannur University has recently sparked a stir in Kerala.
  • The Governor’s decision to appoint him as Chancellor of State Universities was overturned.
  • While the Governor’s responsibilities and functions as Chancellor are outlined in the statutes that regulate the universities in a given state, the Governor’s role in choosing Vice Chancellors has frequently sparked disagreements with the political administration.

In depth information

A disputed case

  • In Kerala’s example, the Governor’s official portal claims that he acts with the help and advice of the Council of Ministers while in office.
  • He functions independently of the Council of Ministers as Chancellor and makes his own judgments on all University topics.
  • The website of Rajasthan’s Raj Bhawan, on the other hand, indicates that the “Governor chooses the Vice-Chancellor on the advice/in consultation with the State Government.”

What about the universities in the centre?

  • The President of India is the Visitor of a central university under the Central Universities Act, 2009, and other statutes.
  • Chancellors of central universities are titular heads who are appointed by the President in his capacity as Visitor. Their responsibility is limited to presiding over convocations.
  • The Visitor appoints the VCs from a list of names chosen by the Union government’s search and selection committees.
  • The President, as Visitor, has the authority to authorise inspections of academic and non-academic areas of institutions, as well as to initiate inquiries, according to the Act.

Governor Provisions in the Constitution:

  • The Governor serves a dual role in relation to the State Government: he is the state’s constitutional head, bound by the recommendations of his council of ministers (CoM).
  • He serves as an important link between the federal and state governments.
  • According to Article 153, each state must have a governor. Governors of two or more states can be appointed by the same individual.
  • The President appoints a Governor, who is a nominee of the Central Government.
  • Article 163: The Governor has a CoM, with the CM at the helm, to assist and advise him in the performance of his duties, with limited exceptions for discretion.
  • Article 200: The Governor assents, withholds assent, or reserves the law passed by the Legislative Assembly for consideration by the President.
  • Article 213: In specific circumstances, the Governor may promulgate the Ordinances.

 

3. Jammu and Kashmir Delimitation Panel

#GS2- Government Policies

Context

  • Members of the National Conference (NC) led by Farooq Abdullah are expected to attend the Delimitation Commission’s next meeting on December 20.

In depth information

  • The Jammu and Kashmir Delimitation Commission has stated that its final report will be based on the 2011 Census, as well as geography, difficult terrain, communication, and convenience for the ongoing delimitation exercise.
  • The panel is charged with carving out seven additional seats for the Union Territory’s 83-member Assembly (UT).

Delimitation Exercises in Jammu and Kashmir

  • Because of the region’s unique status, which was abolished by the Centre in August 2019, delimitation exercises in J&K have been slightly different from those in the rest of the country in the past.
  • Until then, the Indian Constitution oversaw the delimitation of Lok Sabha seats in J&K.
  • The Jammu and Kashmir Constitution and the Jammu and Kashmir Representation of the People Act, 1957, however, regulated the delimitation of the state’s Assembly seats.
  • In 1963, 1973, and 1995, assembly seats in J&K were delineated.
  • When the state was under President’s Rule, the final exercise was undertaken by the Justice (retired) KK Gupta Commission, and it was based on the 1981 census, which served as the foundation for the state elections in 1996.
  • In 1991, the state government did not conduct a census, and after the 2001 census, the state administration did not establish a Delimitation Commission since the J&K Assembly approved a statute prohibiting new seat delimitation until 2026.
  • The Supreme Court upheld the moratorium.
  • Some political parties say that the freeze has resulted in injustice in the Jammu region.
  • In 2020, the Commission will be established.
  • The Delimitation Commission for the Union Territory was established in March 2020.

Mandate

  • On March 6, 2020, the Union Ministry of Law and Justice directed the Commission to delimit the constituencies of the Union Territory in compliance with the provisions of the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 and Delimitation Act, 2002.

Made up of:

  • It is led by Ranjana Desai, a former judge.
  • Five MPs from Jammu and Kashmir are associate members of the commission.
  • The commission, which is in Jammu and Kashmir to acquire ground-level information about the existing process, is not bound by their recommendations.

Situation at the moment

  • The Commission was given a year to complete delimitation, but on March 4, 2021, it was given another year.
  • This was done at the request of the panel members, who were unable to make any headway because to the nationwide Covid-19-induced outage.
  • The Election Commission wrote to the Deputy Commissioners of all 20 districts in J&K in June 2021, requesting updated information on a variety of topics, including population density and topography in all districts and Assembly constituencies.
  • The commission has also asked for comments on each representation it has received in order to assess how well it has been implemented.

What is the need for delimitation in J&K?

  • Due to the enactment of the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, the number of constituencies has increased, and the boundaries of existing constituencies must be revised.
  • Delimitation is critical for kicking off the political process in J&K, which will ultimately lead to elections.
  • It will redraw boundaries (based on the most recent Census data) in such a way that the population of all seats is as uniform as possible throughout the state. The process may result in a change in the number of seats in a state, in addition to changing the boundaries of a constituency.

 

4. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

#GS2- Important International Institutions

Context

  • The Central Government reaffirmed its commitment to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

In depth information

  • India has pledged to protect maritime interests and improve security in the Indian Ocean region.
  • India remained unfazed by pressure in its pursuit of a free, open, and rules-based order based on international law.

The Indian government’s position

  • Maritime interests: The Indian government is committed to protecting maritime interests and bolstering security in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) in order to maintain a favourable and constructive maritime environment.

India also backed:

  • Navigation and overflight freedom
  • Unrestricted trade based on international law principles, as represented in the UNCLOS of 1982.
  • India maintained greatest regard for the UNCLOS, which established the international legal order of the seas and oceans, as a State Party to the UNCLOS.

Challenges

  • Arbitrary interpretation: It is concerning that UNCLOS continues to be eroded by arbitrary interpretations of its definition by some countries.
  • Power head:: There is no single power that can manage all countries and expect them to follow it.
  • When it comes to disagreements with other countries, countries follow their own laws.
  • China, for example, in the South China Sea.

Conclusion

  • UNCLOS is recognised by the United Nations Security Council as a legal foundation for all activity in the oceans, facilitating cooperation among countries, international organisations and bodies, regional organisations, and existing international legal instruments.
UNCLOS

?       The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is an acronym for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

?       The accord is also known as the Law of the Sea Treaty or the Law of the Sea Convention.

?       The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) went into effect on November 16, 1982.

?       It took the place of the four Geneva Conventions of April 1958, which dealt with the territorial sea and contiguous zone, the continental shelf, the high seas, fisheries, and the conservation of living resources on the high seas, respectively.

The sea is divided into four segments, according to UNCLOS:

1.      Territorial waters

2.      Contiguous Zone

3.      Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

4.      Continental Shelf

 

5. Supersonic Missile Assisted Release of Torpedo(SMART)

#GS3- Defence

Context

  • Off the coast of Balasore in Odisha, the DRDO successfully test-fired a long-range Supersonic Missile Assisted Torpedo (SMART).
  • The missile is launched from a mobile launcher on the ground and has a range of range.

In depth information

  • The technology was created to improve anti-submarine warfare capability much beyond the torpedo’s traditional range.
  • The system is a standoff torpedo delivery system based on next­ generation missiles.
  • It was a textbook launch, with the electro optic telemetry system, varied range radars, down range sensors, and down range ships all monitoring the entire trajectory.
  • A torpedo, a parachute delivery system, and release mechanisms were all carried by the missile.
  • The innovative technologies used in this canister-based missile system include two-stage solid propulsion, electromechanical actuators, and precision inertial navigation.
  • India’s anti-submarine warfare capability will be improved thanks to the SMART system.

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