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UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 16th November | Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

Sarat Chandra IAS Academy -UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 16th November – 2021

CURRENT AFFAIRS 16-11-2021

                                                                                                  

 

Topics

  • The CBI & ED Directors Tenure were Extended
  • A Quasi-satellite Kamo’oalewa
  • Kaiser-i-Hind: Arunachal’s State butterfly
  • Rani Kamlapati
  • The Landraces

 

 

1. The CBI & ED Directors Tenure were Extended

#GS2-Government Policies & Interventions

Context

  • The President recently signed two ordinances allowing the Centre to extend the terms of the heads of the Central Bureau of Investigation and Enforcement Directorate from two to five years.

In depth information

  • The Delhi Special Police Establishment (DSPE) Act of 1946 and the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) Act of 2003 have been changed to allow the government to keep the two chiefs in their positions for another year after their two-year mandates have finished.
  • The chiefs of the Central Agency currently serve for a fixed two-year term, but they can now be extended three times a year.

Amendments to the DSPE Act:

  • Provided that, in the public interest, the period for which the Director holds the office on his initial appointment may be extended up to one year at a time, on the recommendation of the Committee (which includes the Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition, and the Chief Justice of India) and for reasons to be recorded in writing.
  • Provided, further, that no such extension shall be granted after the expiration of a total of five years, including the initial appointment period.

CVC Act Amendments:

  • On the recommendation of the Committee (which includes the CVC chief, Revenue and Home Secretaries, among others) and for reasons to be recorded in writing, the period for which the Director of Enforcement holds the office on his initial appointment may be extended up to one year at a time in the public interest.
  • Provided, further, that no such extension shall be granted after the expiration of a total of five years, including the initial appointment period.

Criticism

  • The decision has enraged the Opposition, as the ordinances were introduced just two weeks before the winter session of Parliament began.
  • 17th Lok Sabha: In the 17th Lok Sabha, the BJP government introduced 3.7 ordinances for every ten bills.
  • Pet parrots at ED and CBI: Some people have complained that the same stunts are used to maintain their pets in ED and CBI.

Central Bureau of Investigation

  • It is the central government’s primary investigation agency for matters involving corruption and major criminal investigations.
  • Its origins can be traced back to the Special Police Establishment, which was established in 1941 to investigate bribery and corruption during World War II.
  • After the Santhanam committee’s recommendation, the Ministry of Home Affairs passed a resolution establishing the CBI in 1963.

Enforcement Directorate

  • The Enforcement Directorate (ED) is an Indian law enforcement and economic intelligence organisation tasked with enforcing economic laws and combating economic crime.
  • It is part of the Ministry of Finance’s Department of Revenue.
  • Officers from the Indian Revenue Service, Indian Police Service, and Indian Administrative Service, as well as promoted officers from its own cadre, make up this body.
  • This Directorate dates back to 1 May 1956, when the Department of Economic Affairs established a ‘Enforcement Unit’ to handle Exchange Control Laws infractions under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act of 1947.

 

2. A Quasi-satellite Kamo’oalewa

#GS3- Science & Technology Space

In Context

  • Scientists have discovered Kamo’oalewa, a quasi-satellite that tracks the Earth’s orbit around the Sun and could be a moon fragment.
  • In 2025, an expedition to collect Kamo’oalewa’s samples is expected to commence.

In details

Kamo’oalewa:

  • Kamo’oalewa is a term that is part of a Hawaiian chant and alludes to an offspring that journeys on its own. It was discovered in 2016 (via the PanSTARRS telescope in Hawaii).
  • It’s a quasi-satellite, a space rock that orbits the Sun yet stays very close to Earth — around 9 million miles distant in this case.
  • The asteroid is about the size of a Ferris wheel, with a diameter of 150 to 190 feet.
  • Scientists have struggled to investigate this quasi-satellite because of its modest size (approximately 50 metres wide), and nothing is known about it so far.

Findings-Three Alternatives:

  • a piece of the planet Moon: It could have split away from the Moon as a result of an impact, orbiting the Sun instead of the Earth like its parent.
  • Kamo’oalewa’s reflected light spectrum closely matched lunar rocks from NASA’s Apollo missions, indicating that it came from the moon.
  • It’s in a peculiar orbit, one that wouldn’t be expected of debris drifting towards Earth from the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.
  • Because there are no other known asteroids with lunar origins, the team is puzzled how the chunk of moon ended up adrift in space. They did, however, reduce the era for the violent event to between 1,00,000 and 500 years ago.
  • Near-Earth Objects (NEOs):
  • Captured by the general population of Near Earth Objects in its Earth-like orbit.
  • The Trojan Asteroids of Earth:
  • It came from a previously unknown quasi-stable population of Earth’s Trojan asteroids (Trojans are a group of asteroids that share an orbit with a larger planet).

 

3. Kaiser-i-Hind: Arunachal’s State butterfly

#GS3- Environment and Biodiversity

Context

  • The State Butterfly of Arunachal Pradesh will be a swallowtail butterfly with the word “India” in its name.
  • Kaiser-i-Hind is another name for the butterfly.
  • Pakke Tiger Reserve was established in 2047.
  • The Pakke Tiger Reserve 2047 declaration on climate change-resilient and responsive Arunachal Pradesh, aiming at cutting emissions and promoting sustainable development, was also accepted by the State Cabinet.

In depth information

Regarding Kaiser-i-Hind

  • The State Butterfly of Arunachal Pradesh will be an elusive swallowtail butterfly with the word “India” in its name that was discovered in neighbouring China.
  • It has a powerful and quick flight. It generally flies at treetop level, but when the morning sun is intense, it dips to low vegetation to rest.
  • Kaiser-i-Hind (Teinopalpusimperialis) literally translates to “Indian Emperor.”
  • This 90-120 mm wingspan butterfly may be found in six states along the Eastern Himalayas, at elevations ranging from 6,000 to 10,000 feet in well-wooded terrain.
  • Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, and southern China are also home to the butterfly.

About Pakke Tiger Reserve

  • Pakhui Tiger Reserve is another name for it.
  • It is found in the Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot in Arunachal Pradesh Falls.
  • It’s well-known for its incredible sightings of four different resident hornbill species.
  • For its Hornbill Nest Adoption Program, this Tiger Reserve received the India Biodiversity Award 2016 in the category of ‘Conservation of Threatened Species.’
  • It is bordered on the west and north by the Bhareli or Kameng River, and on the east by the Pakke River. On most sides, it is encircled by contiguous forests.

 

4. Rani Kamlapati

#GS1-Modern Indian History

Context

  • The Habibganj railway station in Bhopal has been renamed Rani Kamlapati station.
  • On November 15, the birth anniversary of the legendary 19th-century tribal freedom hero Birsa Munda, the renamed and refurbished railway station was inaugurated.

In depth information

The purpose of the transfer

  • According to the state government, the renaming is being done to honour the memories and sacrifices of a Gond queen.

The community of Gond

  • With a population of over 1.2 crore, the Gond community is India’s largest tribal group.
  • The Gond are a Scheduled Tribe from India’s central and south-central regions. Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, and Odisha are all home to the Gond.
  • The Gonds are members of the Gondi–Manda subgroup of the Dravidian language family’s South Central branch.

Who was Rani Kamlapati, and what was her storey?

  • In the 18th century, Rani Kamlapati was the widow of Nizam Shah, whose Gond dynasty ruled the then Ginnorgarh, 55 kilometres from Bhopal.
  • After her husband was assassinated, Kampalati is said to have displayed remarkable bravery in battling aggressors during her rule.
  • Kamlapati was Bhopal’s “last Hindu queen,” who worked hard to improve water management and establish parks and temples.

  

5. The Landraces

#GS3- Indian Economy & Related Issues Agriculture

Context

  • RahibaiPopere, also known as Seedmother, was recently given the Padma Shri Award for her efforts to rescue hundreds of landraces (wild types of regularly produced crops) at the local level in Maharashtra.

In depth information

What are Landraces, exactly?

  • Natural varieties of frequently grown crops are referred to as these.
  • Commercially cultivated crops, on the other hand, are designed by selective breeding (hybrids) or genetic engineering to express a specific feature over others.
  • Kalbhat is a scented rice landrace that is one of a kind.
  • As hybrid varieties became more common, this type had practically vanished from growers’ fields.
  • It is more climate resilient than commonly farmed rice and can better tolerate floods and droughts.

Importance:

  • Naturally occurring landraces provide a substantial pool of genetic material that is still unexplored and could bring solutions.
  • Nature’s survival mechanism is genetic variety.
  • The larger the gene pool, the more likely it is that a feature may emerge that will aid in surviving harsh climate occurrences.
  • Landraces, contrary to popular belief, produce lesser yields than hybrids.
  • Landraces can produce higher yields with reduced input costs with suitable farming methods.
  • Initiatives: The BharatiyaAgro Industries Foundation (BAIF) has launched a community-led landrace preservation campaign. Since the year 2008,
  • The community is involved in saving this rich biodiversity in their own backyard as part of BAIF’s mission.

A path forward

  • Landraces are now found exclusively in a few rural and tribal areas.
  • Traditional knowledge, such as how to store seeds, must be developed.
  • There is still a lot to learn about landrace germplasm.
  • The research is still in its early phases.
  • Understanding how these landraces can contribute to climate-resilient agriculture is critical; nutritional profiling can also help with deficiency prevention, as many landraces are higher in nutrients than commercially grown variations.

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