Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

Sarat Chandra IAS Academy -UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 21st October -2021

CURRENT AFFAIRS 21-10-2021

                                                                                                  

 

Topics

  • Kushinagar International Airport in Uttar Pradesh
  • Why is it raining so much in India in October?
  • Improving livestock breeding
  • 60-Point Action Plan by PM
  • Slide in China’s GDP growth

 

 1. Kushinagar International Airport in Uttar Pradesh

#GS I-Art & Culture

 Context:

  • The Indian Prime Minister will open the Kushinagar International Airport in Uttar Pradesh on October 20th

In depth information

  • Tourists from Sri Lanka, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, China, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, and other countries are scheduled to use the airport.
  • Due to the historical significance of the location, a Sri Lankan delegation, led by a member of the first family, will also be present.
  • As an expression of appreciation, a mural painting was created.
  • Sri Lanka will gift pictures of two paintings created by renowned Sri Lankan artist SoliasMendis at the Kelaniya Rajamaha Vihara, a major Buddhist temple outside Colombo, to India to commemorate the anniversary.
  • One of the murals represents Emperor Ashoka’s son, ‘Arahat Bhikkhu’ Mahinda, presenting the Buddha’s message to King Devanampiyatissa of Sri Lanka.
  • The other depicts Emperor Ashoka’s daughter, ‘Theri Bhikkhuni’ Sanghamitta, arriving in Sri Lanka with a twig of the’sacred Bodhi tree,’ under which Siddhrtha Gautama is said to have acquired enlightenment.

Kushinagar

  • Kushinagar nowadays is linked to Kusavati (during the pre-Buddha period) and Kushinara (during the Buddha period) (in the post-Buddha period). Mallas was one of the sixteen mahajanpads of the 6th Century BCE, and Kushinara was their capital.Since then, it remained an integral part of the erstwhile empires of Maurya, Shunga, Kushana, Gupta, Harsha, and Pala dynasties.
  • Kushinagar was suzerainty of the Kultury Kings during the mediaeval period. Kushinara remained a thriving city until the 12th century CE, after which it faded into obscurity. Madan Singh, a Rajput adventurer, is said to have ruled Padrauna in the 15th century CE.
  • Adapted from this sculpture at Sanchi, a hypothetical reconstruction of Kusinagara’s main gate around 500 BCE.
  • However, archaeological excavations carried out by Alexander Cunningham, India’s first Archeological Surveyor, and later by C.L. Carlleyle, who exposed the major stupa and discovered a 6.10 metre tall figure of reclining Buddha in 1876, brought modern Kushinagar to prominence. J. Ph. Vogel continued excavations in the early twentieth century. In 1904-5, 1905-6, and 1906-7, he undertook archaeological campaigns, finding a trove of Buddhist materials.
  • In 1903, a Burmese monk named Chandra Swami arrived in India and transformed Mahaparinirvana Temple into a living shrine.
  • Kushinagar remained a part of the Deoria district after independence. It was established as a new district of Uttar Pradesh on May 13, 1994.

 

2.Why is it raining so much in India in October?

#GS1-Indian geography & Monsoons

 Context:

  • The monsoon has passed, yet rain continues to pour in some parts of the country. For example, extremely heavy rains have been recorded in Delhi, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttarakhand, leading to the loss of life and property in some areas.
  • According to scientists, a combination of circumstances, including a delayed monsoon and the emergence of low-pressure zones in different locations, has resulted in severe rainfall occurrences in multiple locations.

Are the rains in October unusual?

  • It’s not unusual for it to rain in October.
  • October is a month of transition, as the southwest monsoon retreats and is replaced by the northeast monsoon, which primarily impacts southern peninsular India on the eastern side.
  • Western disturbances, which begin to have a substantial impact on local weather over India’s far north, frequently result in rain or snowfall.
  • The first snowfall of the season has fallen in Ladakh, Kashmir’s upper regions, and Uttarakhand since the second week of October.
  • However, two low-pressure systems were active at the same time, one over the Arabian Sea and the other over the Bay of Bengal. Severe weather events were triggered in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Odisha, and West Bengal as a result of these events.

Monsoon withdrawal is being postponed.

  • By early October, the four-month southwest monsoon season is usually over. It creates thunderstorms and localised heavy rains during the withdrawal phase.
  • This year, though, the withdrawal started on October 6 instead of September 17, as is customary.
  • The monsoon has left the Western, Northern, Central, and Eastern India areas entirely dry. However, it continues to be active over the southern peninsula. In the recent ten days, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh have received substantial rainfall.
  • By mid-October, the monsoon winds have usually reversed their flow direction from southwest to northeast.
  • “Even if easterlies are beginning to supplant westerlies, the former has yet to entirely establish itself.” The advent of the northeast monsoon is signalled by easterly winds.
  • Conditions for the northeast monsoon to begin this year are likely to develop around October 25.
  • Extreme weather events are becoming more often throughout the year as a result of climate change. However, the current occurrences of heavy to extremely heavy rainfall can be related to the emergence of low-pressure systems.
  • Whenever a low-pressure system forms, it produces heavy to very heavy rainfall, depending on its strength. Furthermore, when a low-pressure system combines with a western disturbance, it results in even more heavy rainfall.

Extremely heavy rains

  • At least two low-pressure systems remained active along the east and west coastlines, as well as over central India, for the majority of last week, bringing rain to significant sections of the country.
  • Between Sunday and Monday, Delhi received 87.9mm (over a 24-hour period), making it the fourth wettest October day in the city since 1901.
  • October has also been the fourth wettest month thus far. So far this month, it has gotten 94.6 mm of rain, second only to the 238.2 mm received in 1954, 236.2 mm in 1956, and 186.9 mm received in the full Octobers of 1910.
  • While the northeast monsoon brings heavy rains to Tamil Nadu between October and December, Coimbatore (110mm) experienced the wettest October day in a decade even before the northeast monsoon arrived.
  • The Western Ghats, northeast, and central India are noted for receiving a lot of rain. However, in recent years, it has been observed that strong bouts over a short period of time are becoming more common.

Kerala has seen unusually heavy rains.

  • Between October 15 and 17, a low-pressure system emerged in the east-central Arabian Sea and migrated and stayed over Kerala.
  • A low-pressure system formed along the north coast of Andhra Pradesh and southern Odisha at the same time. The interplay between them boosted southwest winds, which brought heavy rains to Kerala’s central and southern regions during the weekend.
  • The 24-hour rainfall was over 200 mm in various areas of the Idukki, Ernakulam, Kollam, and Kottayam districts. Water run-off generated landslides and mudslides in many of these districts, which are steep and densely forested.

There will be rainy days ahead.

  • The low-pressure system that hit Kerala has completely dissipated. However, a similar system is currently active over central India, resulting in good rainfall in northern India this week.
  • Heavy rain is expected in Western Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Himachal Pradesh on Tuesday, prompting the IMD to issue a’red’ signal for these areas.

 

3.Improving livestock breeding

GS3: Economics of animal-rearing.

 Context:

  • Around 200 million Indians work in the livestock industry, with around 100 million dairy producers.

In India, there are major livestock difficulties.

  • Because livestock breeding in India is mainly unorganised, there are gaps in forward and backward integration throughout the value chain.
  • Approximately 80% of the country’s bovines are low-productivity and are raised by small and marginal farmers.
  • For livestock farmers, such a circumstance has a negative influence on their return on investment.

What are the facts about the livestock industry and its effects?

  • Facts: Around 200 million Indians work in the livestock industry, with around 100 million dairy farmers. Approximately 80% of the country’s bovines are low-productivity and are raised by small and marginal farmers.
  • Impact-It has a detrimental impact on the quality of livestock produced, which in turn has a negative impact on livestock farmers’ returns on investment.

Initiative by the government to develop the livestock sector

  • The Rashtriya Gokul Mission was launched in 2014 to improve cow output by focusing on genetic upgradation of the bovine population through widespread artificial insemination, sex-sorted semen, and in vitro fertilisationprogrammes.
  • Individual entrepreneurs, farmer producer organisations, farmer cooperatives, self-help groups, Section 8 companies, and state governments are all eligible for incentives under the revised Rashtriya Gokul Mission, which focuses on entrepreneurship development and livestock breed improvement infrastructure.
  • The Rashtriya Gokul Mission’s breed multiplication farm component will grant a capital subsidy of up to Rs 200 lakh for the establishment of a breeding farm with at least 200 milch cows or buffalo employing cutting-edge breeding techniques.
  • 1 lakh farmers would be employed as a result of the breed multiplication farm incentive plan.

Way forward

  • Web programmes like e-Gopala, which provide real-time information to livestock farmers on the availability of disease-free germplasm in relevant centres, veterinary care, and other services, will amplify this initiative.
  • The National Livestock Mission’s (NLM) poultry entrepreneurship programme would grant a capital subsidy of up to Rs. 25 lakh for the establishment of a parent farm capable of rearing 1,000 chicks. At least 14 lakh people are likely to be employed as a result of this.
  • There is a provision for a 50% capital subsidy up to 50 lakh in the context of sheep and goat entrepreneurship. Under this approach, an entrepreneur will establish a breeder farm, grow the entire chain, and eventually sell the animals to farmers or on the open market.
  • The NLM will grant a 50 percent capital subsidy of up to Rs. 30 lakh for piggery. The creation of breeder farms would be supported to each entrepreneur.

 

4.60-Point Action Plan by PM

#GS2-Government Policies & Interventions

 Context :

  • The Centre has just developed a thorough 60-point action plan.
  • Although the action plan is directed at individual ministries and agencies, a deeper examination reveals that they are divided into three categories: using IT and technology for governance, enhancing the business climate, and modernising the civil service.

In depth information

  • Using IT and Technology to Improve Governance:
  • The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has various concrete ideas, ranging from expediting scholarship disbursement to bridging the digital divide for impoverished students by developing indigenous tablets and laptops.
  • By 2023, all land records will be digitised and stored in a central database known as ‘Matribhumi.’ Integration with the e-Courts system will bring transparency to title and possession issues.
  • Through technology, citizenship might be connected to birth certificates and mainstreamed.
  • Improving the Firm Climate:
  • This includes eliminating certain permissions entirely, lowering the cost of launching a business in 10 sectors to match that of Vietnam and Indonesia, automatic clearance notification, and single-point access to all government services.
  • States would be rewarded for prompt land purchase and forest clearances, and there will be a single comprehensive Environment Management Act that will consolidate several laws in the sector.
  • Mentoring platform for start-ups and emerging industry skilling programmes
  • Increasing the country’s GDP through using Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping for decision-making (Gross Domestic Product).

While negotiating trade agreements, pushing for jobs.

  • Upgrading the Civil Services: Capacity building (Mission Karamyogi) – training of officers on various areas of infrastructure in both the Center and the States, infusion of expertise, and exposure to cutting-edge technology for higher civil services.
  • Performance-based working, clear and specific targets for ministries and departments, just as they are for public sector undertakings, institutional mechanisms for addressing issues of states with limited resources, and department restructuring every ten years through Government Process Re-engineering (GPR).
  • GPR is used to solve the organization’s or customers’ ‘issues’ or ‘needs,’ with the goal of improving the overall quality of services.
  • More Chief Information Officers (CIOs) and Chief Technology Officers (CTOs) to be appointed because data is not being used effectively. Every ministry should have access to all government data.

 

5.Slide in China’s GDP growth

#GS3-Effect of Policies & Politics of Countries on India’s Interests

 Context:

  • China’s National Bureau of Statistics recently announced that the country’s GDP growth fell to 4.9 percent in the third quarter.
  • There are fears that a slowing Chinese economy would wreak havoc on the global recovery, as well as regional economies like India.

In depth information

  • Base Effect:
  • China did an excellent job of recovering economic growth following the Covid-19 pandemic. As a result, the lower growth rate is due to the reference point of greater growth rates in the prior quarter.
  • China is at a’mature’ stage of economic development, which means that an economy that has experienced double-digit growth for two decades is expected to slow.
  • The base effect refers to the impact that selecting a basis of comparison or reference has on the outcome of a data point comparison.
  • Fuel/Power Shortage:
  • Provincial governments were forced to limit power supplies due to a spike in coal costs and the resulting electrical shortfall.
  • China’s fuel/power problem is still affecting manufacturers, and units in the country’s industrial heartland in the south east have been forced to reduce output.
  • Turmoil in the Real Estate Sector:
  • The Real Estate Sector, which contributes for nearly a quarter of China’s GDP, is starting to show indications of slowing.
  • The Evergrande debacle is mostly to blame for the current slump.
  • Evergrande Group is a Chinese real estate behemoth that is battling to avoid defaulting on billions of dollars in bond payments.
  • Impact on Global Economy:
  • China’s containment of the pandemic and resumption of its industries have been critical in the global economic recovery following the pandemic.
  • The Chinese economy’s exposure to systemic risks may result in the global post-pandemic economic recovery losing momentum.
  • The impact of the trade war between the United States and China has resulted in a slowdown in Chinese exports, resulting in losses for nations (particularly in South Asia) who rely on China for their ‘Supply Value Chain’ for producing components and other finished goods.

Is there going to be an influence on India?

  • There are fears that a weakening Chinese economy would stifle the global recovery that is just getting started. According to Chinese government data, India’s bilateral commerce with China increased by about 50% in the first nine months of 2021, indicating that the country could be affected.
  • According to data from India’s Commerce Ministry, China was India’s biggest commercial partner from April to July, followed by the United States, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Singapore.
  • In the first nine months of 2021, India’s imports from China totaled $68.5 billion, up 52% over the same time in 2020.
  • Exports: India’s brisk iron ore exports, much of which is destined for China, could be harmed if China’s twin crises result in a prolonged downturn in the Chinese real estate market.
  • Investments: An investment drain from India could be triggered by a slowing Chinese economy. India has the potential to become the next global manufacturing hub if economic reforms are accelerated.

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