CURRENT AFFAIRS 22-10-2021
- Global Food Security index–113 nations
- The Deputy Speaker
- Mount Harriet and Mount Manipur:
- Shortage of Di-ammonium Phosphate
- Georissa Mawsmaiensis: A Micro Snail Species
1. Global Food Security index–113 nations
#GS2- Issues Relating to Development, Issues Relating to Poverty & Hunger
- Economist Impact and Corteva Agriscience have issued the Global Food Security Index 2021.
- The index is now in its eighth version.
In depth information
- According to a survey, India is placed 71st out of 113 countries in the Global Food Security (GFS) Index 2021, although it trails behind its neighbours Pakistan and Sri Lanka in terms of food affordability.
- The GFS Index takes into account pricing, availability, quality, and safety, as well as natural resources and resilience, to assess the underlying determinants of food security in 113 nations.
- It takes into account 58 distinct food security indicators, such as income and economic inequality, to highlight structural gaps and steps needed to accelerate progress toward the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger by 2030.
- After seven years of progress toward the Sustainable Development Goal of reaching zero hunger by 2030, the GFS Index 2021 found that global food security has dropped for the second year in a row.
- While countries have achieved great progress in tackling food insecurity in the last ten years, the index demonstrates that food systems are still vulnerable to economic, environmental, and geopolitical shocks.
- To reduce hunger and malnutrition and provide food security for all, action is required at all levels–local, national, and global.
- The Index demonstrates that, in order to meet these current and future challenges, investments in food security must be maintained – from climate-resilient agricultural yields to initiatives to support the most vulnerable.
|The Global Food Security Index is a measure of global food security (GFSI)
? It looks at food cost, availability, quality, and safety, as well as natural resources and resilience, in 113 nations.
? The index is a dynamic quantitative and qualitative benchmarking model made up of 58 unique indicators that track the factors that influence food security in both emerging and industrialised countries.
? It highlights systemic flaws and steps that must be taken to expedite progress toward the UN Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger by 2030.
? The “Natural Resources and Resilience” category has been added to the main index in this version of the GFSI.
? This category evaluates a country’s vulnerability to the effects of climate change, its susceptibility to natural resource hazards, and how it is adjusting to these risks, all of which have an impact on the occurrence of food insecurity in a country.
2.The Deputy Speaker
#GS2-Appointment, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
- Nitin Agrawal, a Hardoi MLA, has been elected Deputy Speaker of the Uttar Pradesh Assembly, which is only five months old.
- The developments pose a number of problems and draw attention back to the 17th Lok Sabha, which has been without a Deputy Speaker for over two years.
- The delay in the election of the Lok Sabha Deputy Speaker, according to a suit filed in the Delhi High Court, breaches Article 93 of the Constitution.
- There has never been a case in which a judge has ordered the legislature to elect the Deputy Speaker.
- Experts say the courts certainly have jurisdiction to investigate why there hasn’t been an election for the position of Deputy Speaker, given that the Constitution calls for an election “as soon as possible.”
- In general, the courts do not interfere with Parliament’s procedural actions.
- “The validity of any proceedings in Parliament shall not be called into doubt on the basis of any purported irregularity of process,” says Article 122(1).
What method do they use to get elected?
- These Houses “must, as soon as may be,” appoint two of its members to be Speaker and Deputy Speaker, according to Article 93 for the Lok Sabha and Article 178 for state assemblies.
- The President/Governor sets the date for the election of the Speaker in the Lok Sabha and state legislatures, while the Speaker sets the date for the election of the Deputy Speaker.
- The legislators in each House vote to elect one of their own to these positions.
Is having a Deputy Speaker required by the Constitution?
- Both Articles 93 and 178 employ the terms “must” and “as soon as may be,” indicating that not only is the election of Speaker and Deputy Speaker required, but it must be held as quickly as possible.
Their functions and roles are as follows:
- “The Speaker is the House’s chief spokesman; he reflects the House’s collective voice and serves as its solitary representation to the outside world,” according to the Speaker’s bio.
- The Speaker is in charge of the House procedures as well as combined sessions of the two Houses of Parliament.
- The Speaker decides if a bill is a Money Bill, which means it is not subject to the scrutiny of the other House.
- The Speaker is usually a member of the ruling party. The status of the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha has changed over time.
- The constitution attempts to ensure Speaker independence by charging his pay to the Consolidated Fund of India, which is not subject to vote of Parliament.
- Members of the parliament must address only the Speaker while debating or discussing a measure in general.
- After being elected, the Deputy Speaker normally serves until the House is dissolved.
- The Speaker or Deputy Speaker “must relinquish his office if he ceases to be a member of the House of the People,” according to Article 94 (Article 179 for state legislatures).
- They can also resign (to each other) or be “removed from office by a resolution of the House of the People voted by a majority of all members of the House at the time.”
Deputy Speaker’s Powers:
- When presiding over a House meeting, the Deputy Speaker has the same powers as the Speaker. When the Deputy Speaker preside, any references to the Speaker in the Rules are deemed to be references to him.
- There is no set timetable for the appointment of the Deputy Speaker: These Houses “must, as soon as may be,” appoint two of its members to be Speaker and Deputy Speaker, according to Article 93 for the Lok Sabha and Article 178 for state assemblies. The Assembly rules and the Constitution do not establish a time limit for filling a vacancy in a position.
- Maintaining Neutrality: It would be difficult to expect a Presiding Officer to totally disregard all political concerns while performing his or her duties, given there are structural issues with the Speaker’s appointment and duration in office.
States that have set a deadline for holding elections include:
- The Constitution does not specify a time limit or a procedure for these elections. It is up to the legislatures to decide how these elections will be held.
- Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, for example, provide a time frame.
- In the state of Haryana,
- The Speaker of the House must be elected as quickly as practicable following the election. After that, the Deputy Speaker will be chosen in seven days.
- If a vacancy in these offices arises afterwards, the election for these positions must be held within seven days of the legislature’s next session, according to the regulations.
- In the state of Uttar Pradesh,
- If the Speaker’s seat becomes vacant during the Assembly’s term, an election must be held within 15 days.
- In the case of the Deputy Speaker, the Speaker sets the date for the first election, and subsequent vacancies are filled within 30 days.
- The preceding arguments demonstrate how the government disregards the legislature.
- Parliament should be held accountable, and the general public should be permitted to ask questions about how it operates.
- As a result, the position of Deputy Speaker is desirable under the current conditions in order to maintain neutrality and the smooth operation of Parliament.
3.Mount Harriet and Mount Manipur:
#GS1-Modern Indian history: significant events, personalities, issues.
- Mount Harriet, a historical tourist attraction in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, has been renamed ‘Mount Manipur’ by the Centre.
What does Manipur have to do with Mount Harriet?
- Several Manipuris who battled the British in the Anglo-Manipur War of 1891, notably Maharaja KulachandraDhwaja Singh, were deported to the British prison colony in the Andaman Islands.
- Kulachandra and the inmates were confined atop Mount Harriet, a mountain in what is now the Ferragunj tehsil of the South Andaman district, because the cellular jail (Kalapani) had not yet been erected.
The Anglo-Manipuri War was fought between the British and the Manipuri people.
- Surchandra acquired the throne from his father Chandrakirti Singh in 1886, when the kingdom of Manipur was not under British administration but had treaties with the crown.
- Surchandra’s ascent to the throne, however, was contentious, and his younger brothers – Kulachadra and Tikendrajit – revolted.
- Surchandra was deposed by the rebel movement in 1890, and Kulachandra, the next oldest brother, was declared king. Surchandra fled to Calcutta, hoping for British assistance in getting him reinstated.
Imposition by the British:
- The British sent the Chief Commissioner of Assam, James Quinton, with an army to Manipur. His purpose was to recogniseKulachandra as king on the condition that Crown Prince Tikendrajit, the coup leader, be arrested and deported from Manipur.
- The king opposed this intrusive imposition of British law upon a sovereign state, causing the Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891.
- Mount Harriet, the third highest mountain in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, served as the Chief Commissioner’s summer headquarters during the British Raj.
- It is thought to be named after Harriet Christina Tytler, a British artist and photographer who was the wife of Robert Christopher Tytler, a soldier in the British Indian Army.
4.Shortage of Di-ammonium Phosphate
#GS3- Indian Economy & Related Issues
- Di-ammonium Phosphate (DAP) and muriate of potash (MOP) fertilisers are in low supply in several of the country’s most populous agricultural states (Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, and Karnataka).
Ammonium Phosphate Market Size, Share
Fertilizers containing di-ammonium phosphate (DAP)
- The most extensively used fertiliser in the country, after urea, is Di-Ammonium Phosphate (DAP).
- Both Nitrogen and Phosphorus, which are key macronutrients, are present.
- It was used right before or at the start of sowing.
- DAP is made up of 18 percent nitrogen and 46 percent P2O5.
Shortage Caused by Global Supply Disruption:
- Because of the pandemic’s disruption of the worldwide supply and logistics chain. This has also resulted in a global increase in fertiliser prices.
- As worldwide costs have risen, India has reduced its imports, causing the country’s fertiliser reserves to deplete even further.
- Imports were only viable if corporations could pass on rising global prices — of fertilisers as well as inputs such as phosphoric acid, ammonia, and sulphur — to farmers in the United States.
- Fixed Subsidies to Businesses: The Centre provides fixed subsidies to fertiliser businesses that believe they are insufficient.
- As a result, they’ve reduced DAP output, which has impacted supplies.
- Despite abundant rains, Rabi crop plantings (wheat, mustard, potato, onion, etc.) are hampered.
- Due to a lack of raw materials, the production objective will be impacted.
- Increase retail prices dramatically.
- Political elections in the near future will have an impact
- The government must ensure that the material gets from the ports to the consumption centres as rapidly as possible. Farmers will halt panic buying once they know there is adequate supply in transit, and they may not mind postponing sowing by a week.
- Instead of DAP, farmers should employ a urea-single super phosphate mixture.
5. Georissa Mawsmaiensis: A Micro Snail Species
#GS3-Science & Tech
- Georissamawsmaiensis, a micro snail species, was recently discovered in Meghalaya’s Mawsmai Cave.
Points to Remember
- The new species differs from Georissasarrita (a member of the same genus identified in 1851) in its shell morphology, which includes shell size variation and the presence of four noticeable spiral striations (a minute groove, scratch) on the shell’s body whorls.
- In Georissasarrita, there are seven spiral striations counting from the suture to the aperture in apertural view.
- Georissa can be found in soil or subterranean environments in both lowland tropical and high altitude evergreen forests, as well as on calcium-rich rock surfaces.
- Georissa species can be found in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific, and have been reported from all three continents. They are, however, restricted to microhabitats consisting of limestone caves or karst landscapes created by limestone dissolution.
- Threats: The large visitor influx could put this micro snail species, as well as other cave faunas, in jeopardy.
About Mawsmai cave
Mawsmai cave is located near Mawsmai, a tiny town in the East Khasi Hills area of Meghalaya, around four kilometres from Cherrapunjee (Sohra).
- In the Khasi language, the name ‘Mawsmai’ means ‘Oath Stone.’ The cave is referred to as ‘Krem’ by the Khasi people.
- The cave, which is located at an elevation of 1,195 metres above sea level, is influenced indirectly by the Kynshi River, which originates in the East Khasi Hills.
- This item is based on an article published in Down To Earth on October 20, 2021 titled “Micro snail species discovered in Meghalaya’s Mawsmai cave.”