Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

Sarat Chandra IAS Academy -UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 24th November – 2021

 

CURRENT AFFAIRS 24-11-2021

                                                                                                  

 

 

Topics

  • JPC on the Personal Data Protection (PDP) Bill, 2019
  • P. and ‘three capitals’ Acts
  • All-India Survey on Domestic Workers
  • World Fisheries Day
  • Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace for 2021

 

 

 

 

 

1. JPC on the Personal Data Protection (PDP) Bill, 2019

#GS2-Government policies and issues related.

Context:

  • The report of the Joint Parliamentary Committee on the Personal Data Protection (PDP) Bill, 2019 has been presented.
  • It has kept the contentious exemption clause, which permits the government to keep any of its agencies out of the bill with minimal modifications.

In depth information

 

Major Points of Interest

  • The controversial exception clause permits the government to keep any of its agencies out of the law’s reach. Clause 35 was kept with minor amendments by the committee.
  • Clause 35: Some agency under the Union Government is free from all or any sections of the legislation in the name of “public order,” “sovereignty,” “friendly relations with other nations,” and “security of the state.”
  • “Public order,” according to critics, should be removed as a basis for exemption.
  • They further demanded that such exemptions be subject to “judicial or parliamentary scrutiny.”
  • “There should be an order in writing with reasons for exempting a given agency from the purview of the Bill,” the MPs had also proposed.
  • Clause 35 is vulnerable to abuse since it grants the government broad powers.
  • Reasons for keeping this article: According to the study, this clause is for “certain legitimate goals,” and there is precedent in the form of reasonable constraints put on an individual’s liberty, as provided under Article 19 of the Constitution and the Puttaswamy judgment.
  • A secure nation is the only place where an individual’s personal liberty and privacy are guaranteed.
  • The bill establishes two parallel universes: one for the private sector, where it would be applied rigorously, and another for the government, which is replete with exemptions, carve outs, and escape clauses.
  • Stricter restrictions for social media platforms: It has been proposed that all social media platforms that do not function as intermediaries be recognised as publishers and held liable for the content they contain, as well as the content posted by unverified accounts on their platforms.
  • It has stated that no social media platform should be permitted to operate unless the technology’s parent business establishes a presence in India.
  • A statutory media regulatory authority, similar to the Press Council of India, might be established to oversee the regulation of content on all such platforms, regardless of whether the content is published online, in print, or elsewhere.
  • Data localization policy: Development of an alternative indigenous financial system for cross-border payments, similar to Ripple (US) and INSTEX, is one of the committee’s other recommendations (E.U.).
  • The central government must create and issue a comprehensive data localization strategy in conjunction with all sectoral regulators.
  • There are no safeguards in place to prevent hardware makers from collecting data: A key risk is the possibility of data leakage through hardware.
  • It has been recommended that the government work to establish a formal certification process for all digital and IoT devices, which will ensure the integrity of all such devices in terms of data security.

Bill 2019 on Personal Data Protection (PDP):

  • The report provided by a Committee of Experts led by Justice B.N. Srikrishna is the source of this Bill.
  • During the hearings before the Supreme Court in the right to privacy case, the government formed the committee (Justice K.S. Puttaswamy v. Union of India).
  • Other important provisions include:
  • According to the bill, the individual whose data is being held and processed is the data principal.
  • Social media firms who are considered key data fiduciaries due to characteristics including data volume and sensitivity, as well as turnover, should build their own user verification process.
  • Assessments, audits, and definition creation will be overseen by an independent authority, the Data Protection Agency (DPA).
  • Each organisation will have a Data Protection Officer (DPO), who will work closely with the DPA on audits, grievance resolution, and record-keeping, among other things.
  • Individuals will also have the right to data portability, or the capacity to access and transfer their own data, under the measure.
  • The right to be forgotten is a legal concept that refers to the right to be forgotten An individual’s right to withdraw consent for data collection and disclosure is protected under this right.

 

2. A.P.  and ‘three capitals’ Acts

#GS2-Government Policies

Context

  • The Andhra Pradesh Assembly recently passed a bill repealing two laws that had been passed to establish three different state capitals.

In depth information

  • The AP Decentralisation and Inclusive Development of All Regions Act, 2020, and the AP Capital Region Development Authority (Repeal) Act, 2020, were both notified by the state government on July 31.
  • The government had previously suggested that the state of Andhra Pradesh may have three capitals: an executive capital in Visakhapatnam, a legislative capital in Amaravati, and a judicial capital in Kurnool.

Three capitals are required.

  • Three capitals ensure that the state’s various areas develop at the same rate.
  • All main committees established to offer a viable location for Andhra Pradesh’s capital have recommended decentralisation as a core topic. Justice B N Srikrishna Committee, K Sivaramakrishnan Committee, G N Rao Committee, and others are among them.

The Case for Repeal

  • People’s protest: The Andhra Pradesh High Court has received over a hundred petitions disputing the government’s decision.
  • Farmers in Amaravati who agreed to allow the government take their land wanted the government to keep to the original plan and construct a world-class capital city in the same place.
  • Fill in the gaps:
  • After closing the loopholes in the previous bill, a “better” and “more complete” one should be submitted.
  • There is a better resort available:
  • Amaravati was the wrong choice for the capital since it lacked essential infrastructure like roads and drainage systems.
  • A large sum of money is required:
  • Just that cost Rs 1 lakh crore, with the cost rising to Rs 5 or 6 lakh crore in ten years.

Decentralization is encouraged:

  • According to the government, decentralisation was a central theme in the recommendations of all major committees tasked with recommending a suitable location for Andhra Pradesh’s capital.
  • It restores asymmetric federalism, which allows variation not just between states, but also within states.
  • Three new significant cities would improve the state’s growth, and having numerous capitals spreads economic growth across multiple routes by constructing multiple growth poles.
  • Prevents Migration: This will reduce migration to a single huge capital city by providing three different destinations, thereby making it a viable and sustainable urbanization.

Disadvantages of Andhra Pradesh’s three capitals

  • Huge Financial Investments:
  • A significant amount of money will be necessary to build various capitals and assure their smooth operation.
  • Inconvenient Travel:
  • The distance between Amaravati and Kurnool is 370 kilometres. Travel will take a long time and cost a lot of money.
  • Similarly, government officials who may be called to testify in front of the High Court will have to travel 700 kilometres to Kurnool, which lacks an airport.
  • It’s not necessary:
  • The Assembly meets only every few months, and government ministers, officers, and personnel can simply travel to Amaravati whenever they are needed.
  • Coordination Establishment:
  • Coordinating between the legislative and the administration in various cities will be more difficult than it appears, and police and ordinary citizens alike fear a logistical nightmare if the government does not provide specifics.
  • Disinterested World Organizations:
  • The withdrawal of the World Bank and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) from the initiative to fund the development of Amaravati is a lesson to be learned.
  • Three minor capital cities may not be able to attract as many investors as a single huge capital.
  • Other Issues:
  • It entails concerns such as land acquisition, which is already a problem in Amaravati, the newly developed capital.
  • The disparity at the district level would still exist. (Amaravati in southern Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam in northern Andhra Pradesh, and Kurnool in Rayalaseema.)

Multiple Capitals Examples

  • Mumbai and Nagpur are the two capitals of Maharashtra, India (which holds the winter session of the state assembly).
  • Shimla and Dharamshala are the state capitals of Himachal Pradesh (winter).
  • Srinagar and Jammu (winter) were the capitals of the erstwhile state of Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte is the official capital and location of the national assembly in Sri Lanka.
  • Colombo serves as the de facto capital of the country’s executive and judicial branches.
  • Pretoria, the administrative capital, Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital, are the three capitals of the Republic of South Africa.
  • In Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur is the official and royal capital, as well as the national legislature’s seat, and Putrajaya is the administrative and judiciary’s seat.

Conclusion

  • It’s unclear whether the administration will keep Amaravati as its single capital.
  • Decentralization is critical for the equitable development of all regions.

 

3. All-India Survey on Domestic Workers

#GS2- Government Policies

Context

  • The Ministry of Labour& Employment recently launched the first-ever All-India Survey on Domestic Workers.

In depth information

The survey’s goals and requirements

  • Domestic Workers account for around 8.8% of the 8.56 crore registered informal sector workers, according to the latest data on the e-Shram platform.
  • After agriculture and construction, DWs are the third largest group of workers.
  • Although domestic workers make up a considerable portion of the total informal sector workforce, there is a scarcity of information about their working circumstances.
  • This research will aid the government in formulating policies for this group of workers.

About the All-India Domestic Workers Survey

  • The Labor Bureau is conducting the investigation.
  • Its goal is to estimate the proportion of domestic workers at the national and state levels, as well as the proportion of domestic employees who live-in/live-out, work in informal jobs, are migrant/non-migrant, and their wages, among other socio-economic aspects.
  • The poll would also provide the number of households with live-in or live-out domestic employees, as well as the average number of workers employed by different types of households.
  • Details regarding the size of the home, religion, social group, monthly consumption spending, and the nature of the job will be included in the questionnaire.
  • Domestic workers’ age, socioeconomic group, migrant status, length of service, and type of remuneration would all be gathered.

Concerning the unorganised sector

  • It is characterised by small, dispersed units that are largely outside the government’s jurisdiction. Rules and regulations exist, yet they are not observed. Jobs in this area are frequently low-paying and irregular.
  • There are no provisions for overtime, paid leave, holidays, or sick leave, among other things. The employment situation is precarious.
  • Without warning, people may be asked to leave.
  • A huge number of people work in this industry on their own, doing minor occupations like selling on the street or doing repair work.
  • Farmers, on the other hand, work on their own and hire labourers as needed.

India’s unorganised sector

  • The informal sector employs around 80% of India’s workforce, while the formal sector employs the remaining 20%.
  • The informal sector employs 80% of the workforce, with half working in agriculture and the rest in non-agricultural sectors.

Conclusion

  • It is necessary to provide social welfare protection to informal sector workers so that the disruption they are experiencing does not result in a permanent drop in demand.
  • More people cannot be accommodated by agriculture. It’s already suffocating. Returning migrants can help construct new agri-value chains, which could help them find work and safeguard their livelihoods.
  • In the meantime, if the government can expand its “one nation, one ration card” programme and make subsidised grains available at work in cities and industrial towns, migrants will be able to stay put for a while longer before deciding to return to their homelands.
  • Government godowns are overflowing with excess grain inventories, and rather than incurring the high costs of keeping these stocks, it may be beneficial to share at least a portion of this to assist migrant workers.
  • Additionally, some financial assistance under the Garib Kalyan Yojana might be provided to migrants in order to assist them in remaining in the cities where they work.

 

4. World Fisheries Day

#GS3-Economics of Animal-rearing

Context

  • Every year on November 21st, World Fisheries Day is commemorated.

In depth information

 World Fisheries Day is a worldwide celebration of fisheries.

  • The goal is to emphasise the relevance of globally sustainable fisheries stocks.
  • It also addresses other connected issues such as the importance of healthy oceans, ecosystem balance, and the environment.
  • The “World Forum of Fish Harvesters & Fisher Workers” gathered in New Delhi in 1997, resulting in the founding of the “World Fisheries Forum,” which included delegates from 18 countries who signed a declaration arguing for a global mandate of sustainable fishing practises and regulations.
  • It is commemorated each year with a different theme that focuses on the overall growth of the fishing sector, the environment, and biodiversity.
  • Theme:
  • 2021: The day is awaiting a creative theme that incorporates the fishing industry, nature and the environment, as well as a greater emphasis on biodiversity.
  • ‘Social Responsibility in the Fishing Value Chain’ was the subject for 2020.
  • Ceremony of Presentation of Awards:
  • On the occasion of World Fish Day, the ministry of fisheries, animal husbandry, and dairying held an award ceremony in Bhubaneswar.
  • The district of Balasore in Odisha has been named India’s “Best Marine District.”

World Fisheries Day’s Importance

  • Essential Reminder: It should come as no surprise that fish is an important part of people’s diets all across the world.
  • As a result, this day serves as a crucial reminder that we must take the required efforts to manage global fisheries for long-term stock sustainability.
  • Aspects of culture: For many years, fishing has been associated with numerous societies and tribes.
  • Better development: It will provide a strong hope for the country’s fishing industry to flourish in a positive way.
  • Raising Awareness: These types of events and celebrations help to raise awareness about a particular theme and urge individuals to work on its promotion.

The Fisheries Sector’s Importance in India

  • Contribution to the Economy: The fisheries sector continued to grow at a rate of more than 10% annually.
  • Fisheries have traditionally played a key role in India’s economy, thanks to its enormous coastline of over 8,000 km and vast network of rivers.
  • Global Share and Exports: India produced 8% of the global share in 2019-20, with an overall production of 142 lakh tonnes.
  • India’s fisheries exports were Rs 46,662 crore over the same year, accounting for nearly 18% of the country’s agricultural exports.
  • Livelihood:
  • Millions of people, particularly in rural areas, rely on fishing for work and money.
  • More than 2.8 crore people in the country rely on this sector for their livelihood.
  • Nutrients to Consider:
  • Fisheries and aquaculture continue to be key food and nutrition sources.
  • Fish is one of the best options for reducing hunger and nutrient deficit because it is inexpensive and high in animal protein.

Challenges Facing the Fisheries Industry

  • Poor Infrastructure: Storage, inventory, and transportation systems all fall short of what is required to give this industry a boost.
  • Over-exploitation, the negative effects of growing climate change, frequent oil spills, effluent discharge, dangerous chemicals, and other environmental challenges exist.
  • Tariff reductions:
  • As a result of multilateral accords, tariffs on fish and fisheries products have been decreased much more than those on agricultural items.
  • Potential that has yet to be realised:
  • According to the Economic Survey of India for 2019-20, barely 58 percent of the country’s inland potential has been exploited thus far.
  • Species in Short Supply:
  • A small number of species are grown or cultured, owing to a lack of collaboration between research and development and the fish farming sector.
  • Food-borne diseases: There has been an overall increase in food-borne diseases around the world, prompting many countries to impose stronger quality assurance regulations on the food supply in response to public pressure.
  • Despite the fact that fish products have not been identified as a major vector, the processing sector has been forced to adapt.
  • Economic loss: According to the FAO, up to 20 million tonnes of fish are wasted each year by being dumped at sea shortly after being caught.
  • Aside from the financial loss, the topic of conservation is receiving more attention.

Efforts by the government

  • Separate ministry: The Prime Minister has proposed that the fisheries industry be given its own ministry. The sector’s promise has been achieved, and in a relatively short period of time.
  • India has set an ambitious goal of generating one lakh crore in revenue from the sector. The Indian government is providing all essential assistance in order to meet the sector’s one lakh crore export objective by 2024-25.

Scheme of the Blue Revolution:

  • The recently finished Blue Revolution Scheme, which was established in 2015-16 with a budget of Rs 3000 crore and ran for five years, made significant contributions to the sector’s development.
  • Infrastructure Development Fund for Fisheries and Aquaculture:
  • The government established the Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund in 2018-19 with a budget of Rs. 7,522 crore to address key gaps in fisheries infrastructure.

Three Significant Changes:

  • Inland aquaculture, particularly freshwater aquaculture, is booming.
  • Capture fisheries have become more mechanised.
  • The start of brackish water shrimp aquaculture has been a success.
  • MatsyaSampada Yojana gets a boost: The government is implementing MatsyaSampada Yojana, which has injected Rs 20,000 crore into the sector.
  • MatsyaSampada Yojana and has infused Rs 20,000 crore in the sector through the scheme.

Five Main Fishing Harbours: The development of five major fishing harbours as economic hubs (Kochi, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, and Petuaghat).

  • It calls for the creation of world-class infrastructure and services, as well as steps to reduce post-harvest losses.
  • Furthermore, the export potential of these modernisedharbours is estimated to increase by 10% to 15%, resulting in the creation of around 50,000 direct and indirect jobs.
  • Inland Fishing Harbours and Fish Landing Centers Development: This is the first time the government has backed such a project.
  • Thousands of traditional inland fisherman who rely on the Ganga and Brahmaputra for their livelihood will gain from this.
  • The project will be one of the first stages in realising the vision of transforming the ‘Namami’ Ganga into the ‘Arth’ Ganga.
  • Establishment of a one-of-a-kind multipurpose seaweed park in Tamil Nadu.
  • The proposed park would serve as a hub and spoke model for the manufacture of high-quality seaweed-based products.
  • This project is expected to open up a lot of opportunities for village women to become involved and earn more money.
  • 2020 National Fisheries Policy:
  • Develop an ecologically sound, economically viable, and socially inclusive fisheries sector that contributes to the economic prosperity and well-being of fishermen and fish farmers while also ensuring the country’s food and nutritional security in a sustainable and responsible manner.

Ahead of Schedule

  • States must be encouraged by one another and look for ways to expand their marine industries.
  • There is a need to develop environmentally friendly fishing methods as well as explore for ways to sustain the sector while maintaining consumption.
  • The Indian government has previously offered KCC assistance to fishermen and women.
  • The government should launch a big effort to raise public awareness regarding the fishing industry.

 

5. Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace for 2021

#GS1-Awards

Context

  • The Indira Gandhi Peace Prize 2021 has been awarded to Pratham, a pioneering civil society organisation.
  • It has been recognised for its groundbreaking work over the past quarter-century in ensuring that every child has access to a high-quality education, for its innovative use of digital technology to deliver education, and for its programmes to teach young adults new skills.

In depth information

Pratham

  • Mrs Farida Lambay and Dr Madhav Chavan founded the company in Mumbai in 1995.
  • Pratham began its work in slums by establishing community-based pre-schools and providing remedial education to pupils who were falling behind in class.
  • Its Annual Status of Education Report (ASER), which was based on a survey of 6,00,000 rural Indian children, is now being used to measure educational results and learning gaps in 14 nations across three continents.
  • Pratham promotes low-cost, reproducible solutions in basic education, collaborating with the government and involving the community to improve learning results. It presently has programmes for children and young adults in 21 different states.

About the Indira Gandhi Peace Prize

  • The Indira Gandhi Peace Prize is named after Indira Gandhi, the first woman to win the Nobel Peace
  • In 1986, a foundation named after the former prime minister (Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust) established the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament, and Development in her honour.
  • It includes a monetary prize of Rs 25 lakh as well as a citation.
  • Individuals or organisations who endeavour to ensure worldwide peace and development, ensure that scientific discoveries are exploited to broaden the scope of freedom and enhance mankind, and create a new international economic system are recognised with this award.

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