Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

Sarat Chandra IAS Academy -UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 2nd November – 2021

CURRENT AFFAIRS 02-11-2021

                                                                                                  

 

 

Topics                                                                                                                                                    

  • Gurpurab of Sikhism founder Guru Nanak Dev be declared as ‘World Pedestrian Day’
  • Movement against Biological Invasion (MABI)
  • Bridgmanite Mineral
  • The Climate Vulnerability Index by CEEW?
  • States Formation Day

  

1. Gurpurab of Sikhism founder Guru Nanak Dev be declared as ‘World Pedestrian Day’

#GS1-Indian culture, Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

 Context:

  • The Punjab Police Department recently recommended declaring Guru Nanak Dev’s birth day (Gurpurab) as “World Pedestrian Day.”
  • In this regard, a written proposal could be given to the Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways soon.
  • On November 19, Guru Nanak’s 552nd Gurpurab will be commemorated.

In depth information

 

What is the purpose of this concept?

  • The goal is to raise awareness about pedestrian safety by using Guru Nanak Dev’s own life as an example, because Nanak’s teachings and followers are not limited to any one country or religion.
  • Only when the community is mobilised for a cause can the finest results be attained.
  • Walking is the most effective technique to promote equality to all. Walking is a ubiquitous mode of transportation.
  • The celebration of Guru Nanak’s birth day as ‘Pedestrian Day’ will inspire citizens to participate.

Guru Nanak is a Sikh guru who was born (1469-1538 AD)

  • He was born in Talvandi, Pakistan, not far from Lahore.
  • Guru Nanak’s most famous teachings are that there is only one God and that all humans can have direct contact to God without the use of rituals or priests.
  • His most extreme social teachings condemned the caste system and preached equality for all people, regardless of caste or gender.
  • He introduced the concept of deity, which he called ‘Vahiguru,’ a shapeless, timeless, omnipresent, and invisible entity. In the Sikh faith, God is also known as AkaalPurkh and Nirankar.
  • Guru Nanak composed 974 poetic songs, which are contained in Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikhs’ holy book.

Guru Nanak Dev’s Journey:

  • During his travels, he visited hundreds of ecumenical sites associated to Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, and Jainism, from Mecca to Haridwar, Sylhet to Mount Kailash (also called udaasis).
  • To commemorate his visit, gurdwaras were built in various locations. His journeys were later chronicled in manuscripts known as ‘janamsakhis.’
  • According to current geographical divides, these locations are currently dispersed throughout nine countries: India, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, China (Tibet), Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan.

Why is Guru Nanak Dev regarded as the most famous and renowned pedestrian in the world?

  • During the 15th and 16th century, he travelled extensively. Guru Nanak Dev and his companion Bhai Mardana are said to have travelled the majority of their voyages on foot during those times when early modes of transportation were limited to boats and animals (horses, mules, camels, bullock carts).

 

2. Movement against Biological Invasion (MABI)

#GS3- Environmental Pollution & Degradation

Context

  • MABI is a new effort created by a scientist from the Agharkar Research Institute in Pune (Movement against Biological Invasion).

In details

  • MABI is a green initiative that aims to systematically track and eradicate Invasive Alien Species (IAS).
  • The goal is to promote native flora conservation in the face of this mushrooming threat.
  • Invasive Alien Species (IAS) Definition: An alien species is a species that has been brought outside of its normal range; if it becomes a problem, it is referred to as an invasive alien species (IAS).
  • IAS is defined as “an alien species whose introduction and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats, or species with socio-cultural, economic, and environmental impact, as well as harm to human health” by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

Examples:

  • Fungal diseases that have been unintentionally introduced continue to cause extensive reductions in taxa ranging from bats and amphibians to corals and native forests.
  • As Africa and Asia have discovered, intentionally introduced feedstock and biofuel crops that invade pose a significant financial and environmental risk.
  • Invasive pines (Pinus species) alter ecosystems and fire regimes in the biodiverse fynbos of South Africa and the cerrado of Brazil.
  • IAS are such a problem that it is particularly addressed in Aichi Biodiversity Target 9 and one sentence of UN Sustainable Development Goal 15 – Life on Land.

Threats

  • Human and Animal Health: There is a direct link between human and animal health. They may pose a concern to the health of livestock.
  • Biological invasions pose a significant threat to global food security and livelihoods, with impoverished countries being particularly vulnerable.
  • Environmental Consequences: The biological invasion may result in changes to fire regimes, disease transfer to native species, forest loss, water flow reduction, and habitat transformation, among other things.
  • IAS are the most common hazard to amphibians, reptiles, and mammals on the IUCN Red List; they diminish the resilience of natural habitats, leaving them more vulnerable to climate change’s effects.
  • Financial Costs: Weed management consumes 32 percent of a farmer’s budget on average, which includes insecticide spraying and labour costs.
  • Man-Animal Conflict: Because of the widespread presence of IAS such as Lantana Camara, the proportion of natural grasses available to herbivorous animals has decreased. As a result, animals like the Indian gaur and the chinkara (Indian gazelle) have been forced to migrate from their natural habitats to human settlements, putting them in risk.

Ahead of Schedule

  • Change to Native Species: Native tree species should be used for carbon sequestration and erosion control rather than introduced species like Acacia or Eucalyptus that grow outside their native area.
  • Identify alien species that are likely to become invasive as a result of climate change (‘sleepers’) and destroy or control them before they spread and become invasive.
  • Prioritization: Ecosystems that are already endangered by IAS must be prioritised for IAS control or eradication in order to improve ecosystem resilience to a changing climate.
  • Spreading Awareness: Policymakers and other stakeholders must educate the public on the scope of the problem.

 

3. Bridgmanite Mineral

#GS3- Space

 Context

  • IIT Kharagpur experts recently investigated a meteorite that landed near Katol in Maharashtra’s Nagpur District on May 22, 2012.
  • The primary findings of a study could aid in the understanding of the Earth’s creation and evolution.

In details

  • Olivine Depth: Initial research found that the host rock was primarily made up of olivine, an olive-green mineral.
  • The most abundant phase in the upper mantle of our planet is olivine.
  • The outer crust, followed by the mantle, and finally the inner core, make up the Earth’s layers.
  • It was thought that drilling for around 410 kilometres would allow us to reach the upper mantle.
  • Researchers have deduced the composition of the Earth’s lower mantle, which is around 660 kilometres deep, by examining the composition of these meteorite fragments.

Bridgmanite formation:

  • Bridgmanite makes up around 80% of the Earth’s lower mantle, according to several computational and experimental research. Scientists can interpret how bridgmanite formed during the last phases of our Earth’s formation by studying this meteorite sample.
  • Bridgmanite is a magnesium-silicate mineral with the formula MgSiO3. It is the most common mineral on the planet.
  • Percy W. Bridgman, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1946, was honoured with the mineral’s name in 2014.
  • The bridgmanite in the Katol meteorite sample is very similar to bridgmanite found on Earth.

Significance

  • This study could aid our understanding of the Earth’s genesis and evolution, as well as its core.
  • This finding also supports the theory of a huge impact on the Moon generating the Moon.
  • This discovery could aid future research into high-pressure phase change mechanisms in the deep Earth, which the group intends to pursue.

 

4.The Climate Vulnerability Index by CEEW?

#GS3-Conservation related issues.

 Context:

  • The Council on Energy, Environment, and Water, an environmental think tank, conducted a first-of-its-kind district-level climate risk assessment, or Climate Vulnerability Index (CVI).
  • It has assessed the vulnerability of 640 districts in India to extreme weather events such as cyclones, floods, heat waves, droughts, and so on.
  • According to the findings of German watch’s 2020 report, India is the seventh most vulnerable country to climate extremes.

In depth

The climate vulnerability index’s findings are as follows:

  • Affected States: Extreme climatic events threaten 27 Indian states and union territories, disrupting local economies and displacing vulnerable communities.
  • Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Bihar are the states in India most vulnerable to extreme climate events like floods, droughts, and cyclones.
  • Climate Change’s Scale of Effect: More than 80% of Indians live in areas that are sensitive to climate change.
  • Climate change affects 17 out of every 20 individuals in the country, with one out of every five Indians living in very vulnerable locations.
  • In over 45 percent of these districts, “unsustainable landscape and infrastructural modifications” have occurred.
  • Adaptability is a problem when you have a low level of adaptability. Over 60% of Indian districts have a medium to low adaptation capacity when it comes to dealing with extreme weather occurrences.
  • Anthropogenic Activities’ Role: Anthropogenic activities have already made susceptible districts even more sensitive to natural disasters’ effects. Some of the activities have resulted in the destruction of wetlands and mangroves, which operate as natural barriers and make the area more vulnerable.
  • Natural habitats have been degraded as a result of landscape changes such as the elimination of forest cover and over-construction.
  • Causing a Financial Crisis: For poor countries like India, combating the increased frequency and scale of extreme climate disasters is financially draining.
  • These disasters will jeopardise investments in infrastructure such as housing, transportation, and industries, particularly along the coasts, with growing weather-related insurance losses potentially triggering the next financial crisis.

What criteria were used to evaluate the districts?

  • When rating a state’s or district’s preparedness, the Index considers a number of factors.
  • These include the availability of critical infrastructure such as cyclone and flood shelters, government mechanisms in place such as disaster management plans being updated, mitigation strategies being implemented, and standard operating procedures being followed before, during, and after extreme weather events, such as how people and livestock are evacuated or how the administration prevents the loss of lives and livelihoods by mobilising food.

The Index’s Relevance:

  • It aids in the mapping of major vulnerabilities as well as the development of policies to improve resilience and adapt through climate-proofing communities, economies, and infrastructure.
  • Instead of focusing on individual climatic extremes, the study considers the cumulative risk of hydro-met catastrophes, such as floods, cyclones, and droughts, as well as their consequences.
  • Other natural disasters, such as earthquakes, are not considered in the study

What are some of the suggestions that have been made?

  • Develop a high-resolution Climate Risk Atlas (CRA) to better detect, quantify, and project chronic and acute risks such as extreme climate events, heat and water stress, crop loss, vector-borne diseases, and biodiversity collapse at the district level.
  • To organise the environmental de-risking mission, create a centralised climate-risk commission.
  • As part of the development process, implement climate-sensitive landscape restoration that focuses on rehabilitating, restoring, and reintegrating natural ecosystems.
  • Increase adaptive capability by integrating climate risk profiling with infrastructure planning.
  • Create innovative CVI-based financial instruments that integrate climate hazards for an effective risk transfer mechanism to provide climate risk-related adaptation financing.

 

5. States Formation Day

#GS2- Government Policies & Interventions

 Context

  • On the formation day of their states, the Prime Minister of India greeted the people of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, and Haryana.

In depth information

  • In 1956, additional states based on linguistic grounds were formed: Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala.
  • Haryana was created in 1966, whereas Chhattisgarh was created in 2000 from Madhya Pradesh.
  • Andhra Pradesh (1 November 1956): After much agitation and sacrifice, the state of Andhra Pradesh was founded after being separated from the erstwhile Madras Presidency. The Telangana area, which was previously part of the Hyderabad state, was amalgamated with Andhra Pradesh to form the state of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Kerala (1 November 1956): On November 1, 1956, after the Linguistic Reorganisation of States Act of 1956 was passed, the state of Kerala was formed by merging the provinces of Malabar, Cochin, and Travancore, as well as Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, which had been separated from the Madras Presidency.
  • Madhya Pradesh was founded on November 1, 1956, when the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal combined to become the state of Madhya Pradesh. Vidarbha, a Marathi-speaking region in the south, was absorbed into Bombay.
  • Karnataka was founded on November 1, 1956, when the Kannada-speaking provinces of South India were combined.Karnataka was formed by merging the princely state of Mysore with Kannada-speaking areas of Madras presidencies and Bombay, as well as the principality of Hyderabad.
  • The previous state of Punjab was divided to form the limits of the new state of Haryana, as per the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966, under the presidency of Justice JC Shah.
  • After getting the then-permission president’s on the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 on August 25, 2000, the state of Chattisgarh was founded by separating 10 Chattisgarhi and 6 Gondi-speaking southeastern parts of Madhya Pradesh.

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