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Daily Current Affairs

Sarat Chandra IAS Academy -UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 7th December – 2021

CURRENT AFFAIRS 07-12-2021

Daily Current Affairs – Topics

  • The ‘Greater Tipraland’
  • The National Judicial Infrastructure Authority of India (NJIAI)
  • Issi Saaneq:A New Dinosaur Species
  • Indonesia’s-Mount Semeru
  • Project RE-HAB

1. The ‘Greater Tipraland’

#GS2- Federalism

Context

  • The demand for a separate state of ‘Greater Tipraland’ for indigenous populations in Tripura Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution has recently grown stronger.

In depth information

‘Greater Tipraland’ is in high demand.

  • Under the proposed approach, every tribal person living in an indigenous area or hamlet outside of the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC) will be included.
  • The concept, however, is not limited to the Tripura tribal council territories; it also wants to incorporate ‘Tiprasa’ of Tripuris residing in different states of India, such as Assam and Mizoram, as well as those living in Bandarban, Chittagong, Khagrachari, and other bordering districts of Bangladesh.
  • It also suggests the establishment of special entities to protect the rights of Tripuris and other aboriginal tribes living outside of Tripura.

Demand’s Historical Background:

  • From the late 13th century until the signing of the Instrument of Accession with the Indian government on October 15, 1949, Tripura was a kingdom governed by the Manikya dynasty.
  • The demand is primarily motivated by indigenous tribes’ concerns about the state’s changing demography, which has reduced them to a minority.
  • It occurred as a result of Bengalis being displaced from the former East Pakistan between 1947 and 1971.
  • Tripura’s tribal population had decreased from 63.77 percent in 1881 to 31.80 percent in 2011.
  • Ethnic violence and insurgency have gripped the state in the decades after, which shares a nearly 860-kilometer border with Bangladesh.
  • The call for Greater Tipraland arose as a result of unmet requests in Tripura to revise the NRC and previous opposition to the CAA.

Cause of immediate concern:

  • The emergence of TIPRA Motha in the state’s politics, as well as the Assembly elections scheduled for early 2023, are the two main causes for the development.
  • The main reasons for the increased demand for a separate state
  • The economic backwardness of sub-regions inside major states has also arisen as a significant basis for smaller state demands.
  • In majority of these cases, linguistic and cultural grounds, which were once the key motivations for forming new states in the country, have now fallen to second place.

Initiatives to Resolve the Problem

  • The Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC) was established in 1985 under the sixth schedule of the Constitution to ensure the development and protection of tribal groups’ rights and cultural heritage.
  • Nearly two-thirds of the state’s geographical territory is covered by the TTAADC, which has legislative and executive authority.
  • The council is made up of 30 members, 28 of whom are elected and two of whom are appointed by the Governor.
  • In addition, 20 of the state’s 60 Assembly seats are allocated for Scheduled Tribes.

Obstacles to the Formation of New States

  • Because establishing numerous institutions, government offices, universities, hospitals, and other facilities requires large sums of money, the new state may find itself reliant on payments from the Union, which may or may not be accessible.
  • Different statehood may result in the dominant community/caste/tribe gaining hegemony over their power systems.
  • As a result, intra-regional rivalries between sub-regions may form.

Next Steps

  • Certain clear-cut limitations and safeguards should be in place to keep unbridled demands in control.
  • It is preferable to enable democratic considerations like as development, decentralisation, and governance to be the valid foundation for conceding the requests for a new state rather than religion, caste, language, or dialect.

 

2. The National Judicial Infrastructure Authority of India (NJIAI).

#GS2- Judiciary, Judgements & Cases

Context

  • The Chief Justice of India recently advocated the establishment of an Indian National Judicial Infrastructure Authority (NJIAI).

In depth information

NJIAI:

  • Similar to the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) concept, the proposed NJIAI might function as a central organisation with each state having its own State Judicial Infrastructure Authority.
  • NALSA was established to create a nationwide standard network of free and competent legal services for the poorest members of society.
  • The NJIAI will be in charge of the budgetary and infrastructure development of the country’s subordinate courts.
  • Unlike NALSA, which is administered by the Ministry of Law and Justice, the proposed NJIAI should be under the Supreme Court of India.
  • It will not propose any substantial policy changes, but it will offer HCs entire autonomy in developing projects to strengthen local courts.

Members:

  • There may be a few High Court judges on the NJIAI, as well as some central government officials, because the centre must be aware of how the monies are being spent.
  • In the State Judicial Infrastructure Authority, four to five district court judges and state government officials could be members, in addition to the Chief Justice of the appropriate High Court and a nominated judge.

NJIAI’s Need:

  • To Manage the Funds: Out of a total of Rs. 981.98 crore sanctioned to the States and Union Territories for development of court infrastructure in 2019-20 under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), only Rs. 84.9 crore was used by a combined five States, leaving the remaining 91.36 percent funds unused.
  • When the CSS was implemented in 1993-94, the issue had been afflicting the Indian judiciary for about three decades.
  • Manage the Growing Quantity of Litigations: The infrastructure of the Indian judiciary has not kept up with the sheer number of lawsuits filed each year.
  • The fact that the country’s total sanctioned judicial officer strength is 24,280, while the number of court halls available is only 20,143, including 620 rented halls, underlines this point.
  • Greater Autonomy: Improvement and maintenance of court infrastructure continues to be done haphazardly and unplanned.
  • The necessity for “judicial financial autonomy” and the establishment of the NJIAI, which will function as a central agency with certain authority.

The Causes of Infrastructural Delay:

  • Lack of Funds: The central government and states collaborate to construct judicial infrastructure through the Centrally-Sponsored Scheme for Development of Judiciary Infrastructure, which began in 1993 and was renewed for another five years in July 2021.
  • States, on the other hand, do not provide their fair share of cash, and as a result, money allotted under the system is frequently left unspent with them and expires.
  • Funding for Non-Judicial Purposes:
  • States have allegedly diverted a portion of the fund for non-judicial reasons in some cases, they argue.
  • Nobody is eager to assume responsibility for infrastructure projects, even in the judiciary, notably in trial courts.

Next Steps

  • Individual rights and freedoms had been frequently supported by Indian courts, which stood up whenever individuals or society were subjected to executive excesses.
  • We cannot continue to operate in these conditions if we seek a different conclusion from the court system.
  • The biggest gift we can give to our people and country in this 75th year of independence is to institutionalise the mechanism for supplementing and developing state-of-the-art judicial infrastructure.
  • The CSS Scheme would enhance the number of well-equipped Court Halls and Residential Accommodations available to District and Subordinate Court Judges and Judicial Officers across the country.
  • The establishment of digital computer rooms would also increase digital capabilities and provide fuel to India’s digitization initiative, which is part of the country’s Digital India goal.

 

3. Issi Saaneq:A New Dinosaur Species

#GS3- Environment and Ecology

Context

  • Researchers recently uncovered the first dinosaur species that existed 214 million years ago on Greenland (Late Triassic epoch).

In depth information

  • During an excavation in East Greenland in 1994, palaeontologists from Harvard University discovered two well-preserved dinosaur skulls.
  • A Plateosaurus, a well-known long-necked dinosaur that lived in Germany, France, and Switzerland, was assumed to be one of the specimens.
  • The discovery has been dubbed ‘Issisaaneq’ by scientists, who believe it belongs to a new species.

About:

  • This medium-sized, long-necked dinosaur was a forerunner of the sauropods, the largest terrestrial animals to ever roam the Earth.
  • IssiSaaneq is different from all other sauropodomorphs discovered so far, yet it shares some characteristics with Brazilian dinosaurs such the Macrocollum and Unaysaurus, which are over 15 million years older.
  • It was the first sauropodomorph to reach northerly latitudes of more than 40 degrees.
  • The new dinosaur’s name (IssiSaaneq) is derived from the Inuit language of Greenland and means “coldbone.”
  • The Inuit language is part of the Eskimo language family and is spoken in northern Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.

Discovery’s Importance:

  • The new species existed at a pivotal point in Earth’s history. It will aid scholars in their understanding of climate changes over time.
  • The fact that this is a novel species that is only found in Greenland is significant because it aids researchers in learning more about the range of Late Triassic dinosaurs and how sauropods evolved.
  • The discovery of Issisaaneq will add to our understanding of plateosaurid sauropodomorph evolution.

 

4. Indonesia’s-Mount Semeru

#GS1-Volcanic Activity

Context

  • As overhead photographs show, Indonesia’s Mount Semeru recently ejected more ash, prompting rescuers to halt their search for survivors.
  • It last erupted in December 2020, driving thousands of people to flee their homes.

In depth information

Mount Semeru Facts

  • The highest volcano on Indonesia’s most densely populated island, Java, is the 3,676-meter (12,060-foot) peak in Lumajang district.
  • Because it sits along the Pacific “Ring of Fire,” a horseshoe-shaped sequence of fault lines, Indonesia, an island of more than 270 million people, is prone to earthquakes and volcanic activity.

The “Ring of Fire” region of the Pacific Rim

  • The Circum-Pacific Belt, often known as the “Ring of Fire,” is a line along the Pacific Ocean characterised by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.
  • It follows the tectonic plate borders of the Pacific, Cocos, Indian-Australian, Nazca, North American, and Philippine Plates.
  • It is home to around 75% of the world’s volcanoes and 90% of its earthquakes.
  • The tectonic plates collide at convergent boundaries in the Ring of Fire, resulting in subduction zones.
  • At the convergent boundary, the plate below is pushed down, or subducted, by the plate above.
  • The rock melts and becomes magma as it is subducted. The availability of magma so close to the surface of the Earth creates ideal circumstances for volcanic activity.

 

5. Project RE-HAB

#GS3- Conservation, man-animal conflict

Context

  • Project RE-HAB was initiated by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) in Village Mornoi in Assam’s Goalpara district, which is plagued by elephant-human conflicts.

In depth

RE-HAB PROJECT

  • “Bee-fences” are established under Project RE-HAB by placing bee boxes in elephant corridors to prevent them from entering human territory.
  • When elephants try to pass through, a tug or pull prompts the bees to swarm the elephant herds and prevent them from going any further.
  • Elephants are irritated by honey bees, according to scientific evidence.
  • Project RE-HAB is a sub-mission of KVIC’s National Honey Mission.
  • The Honey Mission is a programme to increase the bee population, honey production and beekeepers’ income by setting up apiaries.

Achievement:

  • RE-HAB was a huge success in Karnataka, so it’s now being implemented in Assam with more efficiency and technological know-how.
  • This project has reduced elephant attacks by more than 70% in just six months.
  • Benefits
  • It will use honeybees to block elephant attacks in human habitations, minimising the number of people and elephants killed.
  • It will also aid in the preservation of biodiversity and the maintenance of natural balance.
  • It is incredibly cost-effective when compared to other methods such as digging trenches or installing fences, and it does not damage the animals.

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