Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

Sarat Chandra IAS Academy -UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 9th October -2021

CURRENT AFFAIRS 09-10-2021

                                                                                                  

 Topics                                                                                                                    

  • Central Electricity Authority and Cyber security Guidelines for Power Sector
  • The Central government and the SC – Quota Norms For Promotions
  • The World Meteorological Organization (WMO)-The State of Climate Services 2021
  • Blueprint of National Digital Livestock Mission

 

 

1.Central Electricity Authority and Cyber security Guidelines for Power Sector

#GS2 and GS3-Cyber Security,Cyber Warfare, Government Policies & Interventions

Context

  • The government recently announced cyber security recommendations for the power industry.
  • This is the first time in the electricity sector that a complete cyber security guideline has been developed.
  • The rules serve as a model for cyber security legislation being developed by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA, Ministry of Power).

In depth information

  • The Central Electricity Authority (Technical Standards for Connectivity to the Grid) (Amendment) Regulations, 2019, set out the rules.
  • It establishes a cyber assurance framework, enhances the regulatory framework, implements systems for early detection of security threats, vulnerability management, and threat response, and secures remote operations and services, among other things.
  • The rules apply to all responsible entities in the Indian power supply system, including system integrators, equipment manufacturers, suppliers/vendors, service providers, and information technology (IT) hardware and software OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers).
  • Power producing utilities, distribution utilities, transmission firms, and load dispatch centres are only a few of the responsible entities.

 Important Guidelines:

  • Obtain from a Reliable Source:
  • Requires ICT-based procurement from designated “trusted sources” and “trusted products”; otherwise, the product must be examined for malware/hardware trojan before being deployed in the power supply system network.
  • Information Security Officer (CISO):
  • Each responsible entity must appoint a Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) and establish an Information Security Division led by the CISO.
  • Identifying and Reporting Procedure:
  • The entities must also include a system for identifying and reporting any disruptions believed or proven to be caused by sabotage, and send the report to the sectoral CERT and Computer Emergency Response Team-India (CERT-In) within 24 hours.

Significance:

  • It will encourage cybersecurity research and development and open up the market for the establishment of cyber testing infrastructure in both the public and commercial sectors of the country.

 

2.The Central government and the SC – Quota Norms For Promotions

#GS2- Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections of Population & their Performance

 Context

  • The Central Government recently filed data to the Supreme Court about quotas for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in promotions (SC).

In depth information

 The Government’s Position

  • The total number of SCs and STs in Group A, B, and C categories in 19 ministries is 15.34 percent for SCs and 6.18 percent for STs, according to the data.
  • Candidates from the reserved categories who are chosen on merit are included in the figure.
  • Although a constitution court judgement in the 2006 V. Nagaraj case sufficiently covered reservation in promotions, there was confusion over the standards to be followed.
  • According to the government, seventy-five years of independence have failed to bring people of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes on par with other citizens.

 The Supreme Court’s Position

  • Some classes have more than what is required in the data provided by the government.
  • The government’s data revealed that Group A representation is low, as though the government ensures enough representation by altering in Group B and C, “which is not fair.”

Arguments Against Promotional Quotas

  • Reservation in promotion in public positions cannot be claimed as a basic right, according to the Supreme Court.
  • Impact on Efficiency:
  • Promotions to SCs and STs throughout service and promotion appointments may make it harder to maintain administrative efficiency.
  • Reservation Redundancy:
  • The SCs and STs benefit from reservation in their appointments with numerous servicers. As a result, quotas in promotions for key positions are both unpleasant and inefficient.
  • The Constitution only allows the State to make reservations in areas of appointment and promotion in favour of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes “where in the opinion of the State they are not adequately represented in the State’s services.”
  • Quota in Promotions Representation in Higher Echelons:
  • The fundamental reason for quotas in promotions is that there are very few SC/ST candidates in government’s higher echelons.
  • Proper Access to Opportunity:
  • The SCs and STs have faced centuries of discrimination and prejudice in a feudal, caste-based socioeconomic framework, which has created significant hurdles to opportunity.
  • The mandate of the Constitution is to achieve substantive equality in the interaction of fundamental rights with directive principles.
  • Special precautions are required:
  • The Constitution’s mandate for consideration of their claim to appointment will remain illusory unless specific procedures are introduced for SCs and STs in promotions as well.
  • False Efficiencies:
  • The Constitution does not explain what the founders meant by the word “administrative efficiency.” It is a common misconception that promotees chosen from the SCs and STs are inefficient or that their appointment reduces efficiency.

 

3.The World Meteorological Organization (WMO)-The State of Climate Services 2021

#GS2,GS3-Environmental Pollution &DegradationImportant International Institutions

Context

  • The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) recently published its State of Climate Services report for 2021. It is mostly concerned with Terrestrial Water Storage.
  • One in five children globally lives in areas of high or extremely high water vulnerability, according to a research released by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) on World Water Day (March 22nd).

 Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) in detail:

  • TWS is the total amount of water on the surface of the land and in the subsurface, which includes surface water, soil moisture, snow and ice, and groundwater.
  • Water is an essential component of human development. However, only 0.5 percent of the world’s water is suitable as freshwater.
  • Human- and naturally-induced stressors are putting enormous strain on the world’s water resources.
  • These include population increase, urbanisation, and dwindling freshwater supplies.
  • Extreme weather occurrences have also contributed to the strain on water supplies that has been felt across sectors and geographies.

Current scenario- Facts

  • TWS decreased at a rate of 1 centimetre per year for the next 20 years in the global scenario (2002-2021).
  • Antarctica and Greenland have suffered the greatest losses. TWS losses have also been reported in numerous densely populated, lower-latitude locales.
  • The TWS has being eroded at a rate of at least 3 cm each year in India. In certain areas, the loss has been as high as 4 centimetres every year.
  • If the loss of water storage in Antarctica and Greenland is eliminated, India has the biggest loss in terrestrial water storage.
  • The ‘topmost hotspot of TWS loss’ is India. Within the country, the northern section of India has suffered the most losses.
  • Water Availability Per Capita: As India’s population grows, water availability per capita is decreasing.
  • From 1,816 cubic metres in 2001, the average annual per capita water availability has decreased to 1,545 cubic metres in 2011.
  • According to the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, it is expected to drop to 1,367 cubic metres in 2031.
  • River basins
  • According to the Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator, five of India’s 21 river basins are ‘absolutely water scarce,’ with per capita water availability below 500 cubic metres.
  • Five are ‘water scarcity,’ with per capita water availability of less than 1,000 cubic metres, and three are ‘water stressed,’ with per capita water availability of less than 1,000 cubic metres (per capita water availability below 1,700 cubic metres).
  • According to the State of India’s Environment in Figures, 2020, six states will become absolute water shortage, six will become water scarce, and four will become water strained by 2050.
  • One of the most extensively used markers for monitoring water stress is the Falkenmark indicator. It shows the strain that population puts on water resources, including the needs of natural ecosystems, by relating total freshwater resources to total population in a country.

Recommendations:

  • Integrated Resources are required investments. Water management as a means of better managing water stress, particularly in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) (LDCs).
  • Drought and flood early warning systems in at-risk LDCs, including drought and flood warning systems in Africa and Asia.
  • Close the Capacity Gap:
  • Close the gap in data collection for basic hydrological variables, which are the foundation of climate services and early warning systems.
  • Fill in the gaps in data on country capacities for climate services in the water sector, particularly for small island developing states (SIDS).
  • Improve Engagement:
  • Improve the interaction between national level stakeholders in order to co-develop and operationalize climate services with information consumers in order to better support water sector adaptation.
  • There is also a pressing need for better socioeconomic benefit monitoring and assessment, which will help to highlight successful methods.
  • Join the Water and Climate Coalition:
  • The Water and Climate Coalition provides a forum for its members to collaborate on collaborative activities and develop solutions to operational water and climate concerns, with a focus on data and information.

 

4.Blueprint of National Digital Livestock Mission

#GS3- Indian Economy & Related Issues

Context

  • The National Digital Livestock Mission (NDLM) Blueprint was recently revealed at the National Dairy Development Board by Union Minister of State for State Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, and Dairying (NDDB).
  • The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was established to develop, finance, and assist producer-controlled and owned businesses.

In depth information

 Needs and Objectives

  • The livestock industry is special in that it serves as the backbone of rural livelihood.
  • If there had been a deliberate effort to integrate programmes across the country to establish an ecology that was conducive to the sector’s growth, the results would have been far better.
  • The deployment of NDLM was based on this principle, with the farmer’s welfare at its core.

The National Digital Livestock Mission (NDLM) is a non-profit organisation dedicated to

  • The Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (DAHD) and the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) are working together to establish a digital platform based on the current Information Network for Animal Productivity and Health (INAPH).
  • The base of all state and national level programmes, including domestic and international trade, will be the unique identification of every livestock, which will be the pillar of NDLM.
  • Its goal is to establish a farmer-centric, technology-enabled ecosystem where farmers may earn more money from livestock activities by having access to the right data.
  • Farmers will be able to easily access markets through this digital platform, regardless of their location or holdings, as a wide spectrum of stakeholders will be connected in this ecosystem.
  • A comprehensive animal breeding system, nutrition, illness surveillance, disease management programmes, and a traceability mechanism for animals and animal products will all be part of this system.

The National Livestock Mission is a non-profit organisation dedicated to the

  • It is a Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare programme that was launched in 2014-15 with the goal of ensuring the livestock sector’s long-term viability.
  • From 2014-15 to 2019-20, the country’s cattle sector grew at a compound annual growth rate of 8.15 percent.
  • Importance: By involving farmers in the sector, it aids in the development of rural entrepreneurship.
  • Unemployed youth and animal farmers in the cattle, dairy, poultry, sheep, goat, piggery, feed, and fodder sectors would also benefit from the programme.

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