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UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 19th April 2022


19 APRIL 2022





S. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.     ABOUT S 400 MISSILE SYSTEM IN INDIA Prelims & Mains
4.     WHO WAS SIR CHHOTU RAM Prelims Specific Topic
5.     DETAILS OF POISON PILL DEFENCE Prelims Specific Topic





Internal Security


  • S-400 training equipment and simulations have arrived in India from Russia.
  • The delivery of the second regiment of S-400 from Russia has been delayed due to the ongoing crisis in Ukraine.
  • Concerns in India:
  • India faces US sanctions for Russian imports under CAATSA (Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act). At this point, though, nothing is guaranteed.
  • What is the purpose of the S-400 air defence missile system? India requires it for the following reasons:
  • The S-400 Triumf is a transportable surface-to-air missile system developed by Russia (SAM)
  • It is the most dangerous operationally deployed modern long-range SAM (MLR SAM) in the world, trailed by the US-developed Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system (THAAD).
  • What is CAATSA, and how does it relate to the S-400:
  • The major purpose of the Countering America’s Adversaries via Sanctions Act (CAATSA) is to dissuade Iran, Russia, and North Korea through severe measures.
  • The bill was passed in 2017.
  • Sanctions have been imposed on countries that do significant business with Russia’s defence and intelligence industries.
  • What types of sanctions will be imposed:
  • Loans to those who have been sanctioned are not permitted.
  • Assistance from the Export-Import Bank for shipments to sanctioned parties is forbidden.
  • The US government is not allowed to buy products or services from the sanctioned person.
  • Visas for family members of the sanctioned person are rejected.
  • The Importance of the Deal:
  • The S-400 decision illustrates how far our defence and strategic partnership has grown, as well as how strong Indian sovereignty is when it comes to selecting international allies, especially in terms of national interest and national security.




Environmental Conservation related issues


  • Ammonia levels in the Yamuna river remained high on April 16, creating water supply interruptions in parts of Delhi.
  • The ammonia content in the river was 7.4 ppm, more than seven times the limit that the Delhi Jal Board’s water treatment plants (WTPs) can tolerate, which is about 1 ppm.
  • What is the upper limit of what may be tolerated:
  • The maximum amount of ammonia allowed in drinking water is 0.5 ppm, according to the Bureau of Indian Standards.
  • What is ammonia, and what are the repercussions of it:
  • Ammonia is a colourless gas used to manufacture fertilisers, polymers, synthetic fibres, dyes, and other industrial compounds.
  • There are two elements in it: hydrogen and nitrogen. In its aqueous condition, it’s known as ammonium hydroxide.
  • The odour of this inorganic chemical is quite strong.
  • Ammonia is a naturally occurring result of the degradation of organic material in the environment.
  • It has a lower density than air.
  • Contamination:
  • Contamination of ground and surface water sources could result from industrial effluents or sewage contamination.
  • If the ammonia content in the water exceeds 1 ppm, fish will be poisoned.
  • Long-term consumption of water with 1 ppm or greater ammonia can injure humans’ internal organs.
  • It enters the Yamuna in the following manner: 
  • Sewage from some unsewered communities along this stretch of the river, as well as effluents from dye plants, distilleries, and other businesses in Haryana’s Panipat and Sonepat districts, are the most likely sources.
  • What needs to be done:
  • Regulations preventing the discharge of dangerous materials into rivers must be strictly followed.
  • Assuring that untreated sewage does not end up in the drinking water.
  • Maintain an ecological flow, which is the smallest continuous flow possible. This is the bare minimum of water that should flow through the river at all times to protect underwater and estuarine environments, as well as human livelihoods and self-regulation.
  • Upcoming challenges:
  • Haryana is responsible for up to 70% of Delhi’s water needs.
  • Haryana, as a state with a large agricultural population, faces its own water scarcity issues.
  • Both states have fought over maintaining a constant flow of 10 cumecs (cubic metre per second) in the Yamuna.
  • Both states have gone to court several times in the previous decade to secure what they call an equal share of water.
  • In the absence of a minimal ecological flow, other contaminants accumulate. After water is collected from the river for treatment in North East Delhi, untreated sewage and rubbish from houses, runoff from storm water drains, and effluents from unregulated industry flow.




Government Policies and Interventions


  • Telangana’s government has asked the Ministry of Jal Shakti (MoJS) to refer Telangana’s complaint filed under Section 3 of the Inter State River Water Disputes Act, 1956, to the existing Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal-II or Brijesh Kumar Tribunal as soon as possible so that Telangana’s fair and equitable share of Krishna waters can be finalised.
  • Concerning the Water Dispute on the Krishna River:
  • Take a peek at what’s going on here.
  • State-by-state water dispute:
  • 262 governs the settlement of interstate water disputes. It contains two provisions:
  • Any disagreement or complaint concerning the use, distribution, or control of waters in any interstate river or river valley can be resolved by legislation enacted by Parliament.
  • Parliament may further provide that no other court, including the Supreme Court, has jurisdiction over a dispute or complaint of this nature.
  • Under the provisions of the act, the central government has adopted the River Boards Legislation (1956) and the Inter-state Water Disputes Act (1957). (1956).
  • River boards are established under the river board statute to supervise the regulation and development of the Interstate River and river valleys. The formation of a river board like this is requested by the state governments involved.
  • The federal government can appoint an ad hoc tribunal to resolve a dispute between two or more states over the water of an interstate river under the interstate water dispute legislation. The tribunal’s decision would be final and binding. Furthermore, the Act bans the Supreme Court and any other court from hearing this matter.
  • The Interstate Water Dispute Act of 1956 introduces several issues:
  • The 1956 Inter-State Water Dispute Act, which sets a legal framework for resolving such disputes, has several problems, notably the lack of a time limit for resolving river water disputes.
  • There is no time limit for a Tribunal’s adjudication, no upper age limit for the Chairman or Members, work can be suspended due to a vacancy, and the Tribunal’s report can be released at any time.
  • The River Boards Act of 1956, which was intended to stimulate interstate cooperation on water resource development, has remained a “dead letter” since its passage.
  • Surface water is managed by the Central Water Commission (CWC), whereas ground water is managed by the Central Ground Water Board of India (CGWB). Both organisations are self-contained, and there is no central forum for state governments to discuss water management.



 Prelims Specific Topic

 Born in 1881, he was a well-known politician in British India’s Punjab Province.

  • He campaigned for the oppressed peoples of the Indian subcontinent’s rights. For his achievements, he was knighted in 1937.
  • He was a founding committee member of the National Unionist Party.
  • His contributions were significantly responsible for the Punjab Relief Indebtedness Act of 1934 and the Punjab Debtor’s Protection Act of 1936, which freed peasants from the clutches of moneylenders and restored the tiller’s title to land.



 Prelims Specific Topic

 Twitter has challenged Elon Musk’s bid to buy the company for more than $43 billion using a corporate tool known as a poison pill, a defensive strategy used by boardrooms to stave off takeovers but less recognisable to regular investors.

  • In the 1980s, business executives invented this defence mechanism to safeguard their enterprises from being taken over by another company, individual, or group when faced with corporate raiders and aggressive acquisitions.
  • A poison pill is a tactic for making a company less enticing to a potential acquirer by making buying shares of the target company above a certain price point more expensive for the acquirer.

UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 19th April 2022

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