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Pangong bridge construction is in ‘occupied territory’

UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 20th May 2022




1) Pangong bridge construction is in ‘occupied territory’

Gs II International relations

 2) NHRC flags pollution effect on human rights

GSIII – Environmental pollution

3)Delimitation of the constituencies

GS – II Polity & Governance

4)  State of the Global Climate in 2021 report

GS – III Environment – Climate change

5) Chillu the squirrel

GS III_ Agriculture

Pangong bridge construction is in ‘occupied territory’

Gs II International relations

The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) said that

India is closely monitoring the construction of a bridge by China on the Pangong Tso (lake) in eastern Ladakh, which is in “occupied territory”

Official sources said the construction of the main bridge had just commenced and the small bridge, of which satellite images had come out in January, was not a “permanent bridge” but a bailey bridge to support the construction of the main one.

The bridge connecting the north and south banks of Pangong Tso would significantly bring down the time for the PLA to move troops and equipment between the two sectors.

This main bridge is much higher and broader it  would allow armoured vehicles also.

About pangong lake

It is an endorheic lake spanning eastern Ladakh and West Tibet situated at an elevation of 4,225 m (13,862 ft). It is 134 km (83 mi) long and divided into five sub lakes.

It is a saline lake.

Approximately 50% of the length of the overall lake lies within Tibet in China, 40% in Ladakh, India and the remaining 10% is disputed and is a defacto buffer zone between India and China.

Recent border  clashes between india and china
  • On June 15 last year, Ladakh’s Galwan Valley witnessed a violent clash between the Armies of India and China in this clash,20 Indian soldiers were killed .
  • Along the line of actual control .
  • Border between Sikkim and the Tibet Autonomous Region.
  • The North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA) now called as the arunachal Pradesh.

Pangong bridge construction is in ‘occupied territory’


NHRC flags pollution effect on human rights

GSIII – Environmental pollution.
  • The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) on Wednesday said it had issued an advisory to the
  • Centre and State governments on preventing, minimising and mitigating the impact of environmental pollution and degradation on human rights
  •  Right to life and right to health (A-21) – (fresh air to breath, quality water, Healthy food )
  •  Despite having one of the world’s best statutory and policy framework for environment protection, still India was facing a serious problem of pollution and ecological degradation preventing the enjoyment of basic human rights.
NHRC suggestions:
  • The Union and State governments should make efforts to ensure effective and expeditious punishment of polluters and violators of environmental laws.
  •  These efforts should include strengthening of Pollution Control Boards (PCBs) and other regulatory authorities
  • The commission suggested that PCBs should create separate investigation and prosecution wings, as well as carry out regular training sessions for staff.
  • The commission also recommended that “High Courts should establish Special Environmental Courts and ensure speedy trial of the cases involving violation of environmental laws”.
  • The advisory was drafted in consultation with domain experts.


Delimitation of the constituencies

Context: The 84th Constitutional amendment act which had extended the delimitation of Lok Sabha representatives based on the census data is to end by 2026.

  • The delimitation in 2026 will be based on 2021 census.
Positive impact of the move:
  • For a vastly growing Indian population the 543 Members of the Parliament won’t be sufficient further. So, there is a need to increase number of representatives in Lok Sabha.
  • It will help to uphold the principles of electoral democracy.
Concerns of the move
  • Rearranging and standardizing the number of people per constituency through the scheduled delimitation exercise will inevitably lead to a reduced representation for States that have managed to stabilize their populations, and to a higher representation for States that have not stabilized their populations.
  • North – South tension will increase as North India has more population thus more representation in Lok Sabha.
Article 82: 
  • Readjustment after each census Upon the completion of each census, the allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State into territorial constituencies shall be readjusted by such authority and in such manner as Parliament may by law determine
    • Provided that such readjustment shall not affect representation in the House of the People until the dissolution of the then existing House
  • Provided further that such readjustment shall take effect from such date as President may, by order, specify and until such readjustment takes effect, any election to the House may be held on the basis of the territorial constituencies existing before such readjustment
Way forward:
  • We can go in for another freeze, this time not for any specific period but for until all States have achieved population stabilization.
  • Requesting demographic and statistical experts to devise a mathematical model along the lines of the ‘Cambridge
  • Compromise’ based on a mathematically equitable “formula” for the apportionment of the seats of the European Parliament between the member states with proper study and customize it to our situation.
  • We need to limit population, not representation.


State of the Global Climate in 2021 report

Context: Recently, World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) has released a State of the Global Climate in 2021 report.

Key highlights of the report:
  • Globally, the rate of sea-level rise was 4.5 millimeter per year between 2013 and 2021. This was more than twice the rate between 1993 and 2002.
  • The major reason for the increase in sea levels is the accelerated loss of ice from the ice sheets in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. The increase happened despite the La Nina phenomenon being prevalent during the beginning and the end of 2021.
  • Extreme weather led to economic damage estimated at hundreds of billions of dollars and triggered shocks for food, water security and displacement that worsened in 2022.
  • Our climate is changing before our eyes. The heat trapped by human induced greenhouse gases will warm the planet for many generations to come. Sea-level rise, ocean heat and acidification will continue for hundreds of years, unless means to remove carbon from the atmosphere are invented. Some glaciers have reached the point of no return and this will have longterm repercussions in a world in which more than 2 billion people already experience water stress
  • The ocean surface temperatures were at a record high. The upper 2,000metre depth of the ocean continued to warm in 2021 and would continue to do so in the future — a change which is irreversible on centennial to millennial time scales.
Way forward
  • Renewables are the only path to real energy security, stable power prices and sustainable employment opportunities. If we act together, the renewable energy transformation can be the peace project of the 21st century.
World Meteorological Organization
  • The World Meteorological Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
  • WMO is dedicated to international cooperation and coordination on the state and behaviour of the Earth’s atmosphere, its interaction with the land and oceans, the weather and climate it produces, and the resulting distribution of water resources.
  • Its Mandate: As weather, climate and the water cycle know no national boundaries, international cooperation at a global scale is essential to implement an Earth system approach for the development of meteorology, climatology, operational hydrology and related environmental services as well as to reap the benefits from their application. WMO provides the framework for such international cooperation.

Chillu the squirrel

  • Kerala Agriculture department  adopted as the mascot for the ambitious ‘Njangalum Krishiyilekku’ (We are also into farming) campaign .
  • The concept behind the campaign is, ‘every little bit helps,’ more orless.
  • It will promote agriculture as a household activity as well as localised production of safe-to-eat vegetables and fruits.
  • To fight against malnutrition and hidden hunger
  • To attract more number of people into the farming especially youth of this country

UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 20th May 2022

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