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Monkeypox scare in India: 

UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 24th May 2022

CURRENT AFFAIRS

 

TOPICS:

The rise of AI chips

 GS III Science and Technology

MISSION INDRADHANUSH

GS II Governance

International Day of Biodiversity

GS III Biodiversity and Environment

Monkey pox scare in India

GS II Health

 

 

 

The rise of AI chips

  • The adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) chips has risen, with chipmakers designing different types of these chips to power AI applications such as natural language processing (NLP), computer vision, robotics, and network security across a wide variety of sectors, including automotive, IT, healthcare, and retail.
  • AI chips are built with specific architecture and have integrated AI acceleration to support deep learning based applications.
  • Deep learning, more commonly known as active neural network (ANN) or deep neural network (DNN), is a subset of machine learning and comes under the broader umbrella of AI.
  • It combines a series of computer commands or algorithms that stimulate activity and brain structure.
  • DNNs go through a training phase, learning new capabilities from existing data.
  • Deep learning can make the process of collecting, analysing, and interpreting enormous amounts of data faster and easier.
  • Traditional chips are not ideal for AI applications as they would not be able to handle higher computational necessities of AI workloads which have huge volumes of data.

 

Applications:
  • State of the art AI applications of computational imaging in wearable Electronics (smart watch), drones, and robots.
  • AI chips for NLP (Natural language processing) applications has increased due to the rise in demand for chat bots and online channels such as Messenger, Slack, and others.
  • They use NLP to analyse user messages and conversational logic.
Future of AI
  • AI in neuromorphic computing, utilises an engineering method based on the activity of the biological brain.
  • The rise in the need for smart homes and cities, and the surge in investments in AI start ups are expected to drive the growth of the global AI chip market
  • The Worldwide AI chip industry accounted for $8.02 billion in 2020 and is expected to reach $194.9 billion by 2030, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 37.4% from 2021 to 2030

 

MISSION INDRADHANUSH

 CONTEXT :

  • GOI launched the Intensified Mission Indradhanush 4.0 that aims to protect children and pregnant women from life-threatening diseases.
About the scheme:
  • This scheme trying to reach the unvaccinated and partially vaccinated children and pregnant women of the country
  • This scheme provide vaccination to 12 different kinds of diseases initially including polio, tuberculosis, jaundice, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, HIV, brain fever, pneumonia, measles, rubella, diarrhoea, then it extended to other schemes also like Japanese fever, and others.
  • Government is implementing the largest inoculation drive globally where annually over 3 crore pregnant women and 2.6 crore children are covered through the Universal Immunisation Programme
  • Mission Indradhansuh was also identified as one of the flagship schemes under Gram Swaraj Abhiyan and Extended Gram Swaraj Abhiyan.
Indradhanush 1.0
  • Focused on urban areas and some selected districts to achieve at least 90% coverage .
Indradhanush 2.0
  • It aimed to achieve at least 90% pan-India immunisation coverage by 2022.
Indradhanush 3.0
  • Focus of the IMI 3.0 was the children and pregnant women who had missed their vaccine doses during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Success:
  • The Full Immunization Coverage among children aged 12-23 months of age has increased from 62% percent (NFHS-4) to 76.4% (NFHS-5).
  • Vaccines are one of the most effective, affordable and safe methods to protect infants, children and pregnant women from diseases and mortality.
  • As per the reports of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-5, Odisha topped the list at the national level in full immunization coverage with 90.5%.
Conclusion
  • This scheme is successful only with the collective and collaborative efforts of the Centre and the states as well as coordination with district administration, panchayats and the urban local bodies.

International Day of Biodiversity was celebrated on May 22.

  • The pandemic has placed this Mission among the most significant national initiatives.
  • We must urgently address the issues laid bare by COVID 19: the emergence of infectious diseases; inadequate food and nutritional security; rural unemployment; environmental injustice and climate change which all place additional stress on nature and public health.
  • Uncertain climate change -the recent heat waves in much of northern India and floods in Meghalaya…etc.
How biodiversity Shaped the world and India:
  • We are a nation so defined by the richness of life around us that the words ‘diversity’ and ‘India’ have become synonymous.
  • Our ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity has been greatly influence d by the unique features of our land, climate and geography, as well as the forces of migration and evolution.
  • These forces have enriched our land with a multitude of species of plants, animals, and other organisms.
  • Our cultures shape the biodiversity around us, and biodiversity shapes our cultures and our future here o n Earth.
Nature-based solutions
  • The direct connection between biodiversity and climate change was strongly affirmed by most nations. (Parris accord Cop21, Glasgow Cop 26)
Agriculture:
  • Rejuvenation of our soils, diversifying farming systems and agriculture based livelihoods take part in elimination of hunger, and improvement of nutrition depends upon our prudent use of biodiversity.
  • The return of biodiversity to degraded lands and enhancing blue carbon in oceans have immense environmental and considerable economic benefits.
  • Restoration of bio diversity has the potential of creating millions of jobs.
  • We have barely begun to tap the potential of our rich medical heritage that includes thousands of medicinal plant species.
  • Nature contributes not only to our economic and physical wellbeing, but also to our minds and spiritual enrichment.(sacred grooves, rivers goddess names, vanaprastha ashram)
  • This International Biodiversity Day should serve as a reminder to our government and people to push forward the relationship between nature and people as one.

 

Monkeypox scare in India: 

  • BMC’s guidelines for isolation, management of suspected cases post global outbreak.
  • Monkeypox scare in India is climbing as the rare viral infection is being reported in a number of countries.
  • So far no confirmed cases of Monkeypox have been reported in India.
  • However, keeping in mind the safety of Indians, Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation Public Health Department (BMC) has issued guidelines for the isolation and management of suspected cases of monkeypox.
  • Monkeypox is a rare viral infection that is usually mild and from which most people recover in a few weeks.
  • However, the disease can prove fatal with the strain causing the current outbreak killing one in 100 infected.
  • The virus does not spread easily between people and the risk to the wider public is said to be very low. The disease, which was first found in monkeys, can be transmitted from person to person through close physical contact — as well as sexual intercourse.
 Vaccination:
  • There is no specific vaccine for monkey pox, but a smallpox jab offers 85 percent protection since the two viruses are quite similar.
Here are some key points about Monkeypox that you should know
  • Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease that occurs primarily in tropical rainforest areas of Central and West Africa and is occasionally exported to other regions.
  • Monkeypox typically presents clinically with fever, rash and swollen lymph nodes and may lead to a range of medical complications.
  • Monkeypox is usually a self-limited disease with symptoms lasting from 2 to 4 weeks. Severe cases can occur. Case fatality rate may vary from 1-10%
  • Monkeypox can be transmitted from Animal to Humans as well as human to human. The virus enters the body through broken skin (even if not visible), respiratory tract, or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth).
  • Animal-to-human transmission may occur by bite or scratch, bushmeat preparation(Bushmeat is meat from wildlife species) , direct contact with body fluids or lesion material, or indirect contact with lesion material, such as through contaminated bedding.
  • Human-to-human transmission is thought to occur primarily through large respiratory droplets generally requiring a prolonged close contact.
  • It can also be transmitted through direct contact with body fluids or lesion material, and indirect contact with lesion material, such as through contaminated clothing or linens of an infected person.
  • The clinical presentation of monkeypox resembles that of smallpox, a related orthopoxviral infection which was declared eradicated worldwide in 1980. Monkeypox is less contagious than smallpox and causes less severe illness.

Monkeypox scare in India: 

UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 24th May 2022

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