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UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 26th May 2022

CURRENT AFFAIRS

 

 

TOPICS :

1)LGBTIQ+
2) Supreme Court recognises sex work as a ‘profession’
3) Profiting from Pain
4) World may have lost 11.2 crore jobs: ILO

 

 

LGBTIQ+

Context :

  • “Inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer(LGBTIQ+) persons in the world of work” the document released by ILO.
Problems faced by LGBTIQ+
  • According to the report LGBTIQ+ persons face harassment, violence and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics.
Isolation :
  • According to the document many LGBTIQ+ workers, particularly those in smaller workplaces, may feel isolated without visible LGBTIQ+ peers or allies.
Employment :
  • Lack of employment opportunities pushing them into the poverty and begging Recommendations Social protection programmes
  • Recommended member countries, employers’ organisations and representatives of workers to launch social protection programmes to remove barriers that LGBTIQ+ persons face in society.
Economic cost
  • ILO document said discrimination has an economic cost not just to LGBTIQ+ persons and their families but also to enterprises and national economies.
Consultation with LGBTIQ+ communities
  • Consultation with LGBTIQ+ communities and social dialogue with employers’ and workers’ organisations are key.
  • This will allow the identification of barriers faced by LGBTIQ+ persons when entering the labour market and accessing government schemes, including those on social protection.
Review:
  • National policy and labour law review will allow Governments to assess their country’s work policy environment for LGBTIQ+ persons
End sexual discrimination at workplaces:
  • It will improve the business sense to work on LGBTIQ+ inclusion in the workplace.
Workplace diversity:
  • Studies have shown that diversity in the workplace, including LGBTIQ+ persons, is better for business. It signals a creative environment that creates the right conditions for economic growth.
Awareness:
  • Awareness on including LGBTIQ+ persons in workplaces, promote social dialogue and collective bargaining and facilitate learning and sharing of good practices among members.
Conclusion
  • Identification of concrete steps for improving the legal and policy environment, ending discrimination and exclusions, and complying with international instruments will alleviate the problems faced by LGBTIQ+.

 

Supreme Court recognises sex work as a ‘profession’

 Context:

  • In a significant order recognising sex work as a “profession” whose practitioners are entitled to dignity and equal protection under law.
  • The Supreme Court has directed that police should neither interfere nor take criminal action against adult and consenting sex workers.
  • Under Article 21 of the Constitution every individual in this country has a right to a dignified life.
  • Sex workers are entitled to equal protection of the law.
  • Criminal law must apply equally in all cases, on the basis of ‘age’ and ‘consent’.
  • Since voluntary sex work is not illegal and only running the brothel is unlawful.
  • A child of a sex worker should not be separated from the mother merely on the ground that she is in the sex trade.
  • Basic protection of human decency and dignity extends to sex workers and their children.
  • This judgement passed under 142 of the Constitution.
About Article 142:
  • The framers of the Constitution felt that this provision is of utmost significance to those people who have to suffer due to the delay in getting their necessary reliefs due to the disadvantaged position of the judicial system.
  • Article 142 of the Constitution of India provides a special and extraordinary power to the Supreme Court to do complete justice to the litigants who have suffered traversed illegality or injustice in the proceedings.
 Previous cases in which Article 142 has invoked
  • Bhopal Gas Tragedy
  • Ayodhya Ram Mandir verdict
  • Perarivalan case

 

Profiting from Pain

Context:

  • Oxfam the brief titled “Profiting from Pain” is published for the World Economic Forum 2022 for its annual meeting for a five day event at Davos.
  • The COVID19 pandemic created a new billionaire every 30 hours, and it is expected that a million people could be pushed into extreme poverty at the same rate in 2022, according to Oxfam.
  • The brief shows that 573 people became new billionaires during the pandemic, at the rate of one every 30 hours.
  • Oxfam expects that 263 million more people will crash into extreme poverty
    this year, at a rate of a million people every 33 hours.
  • Billionaires’ wealth has risen more in the first 24 months of COVID-19 than in 23 years combined.
  • The total wealth of the world’s billionaires is now equivalent to 13.9% of global GDP, marking a three-fold increase from 4.4% in 2000 .
Poor becoming poorer:
  • Workers are working harder, for less pay and in worse conditions.
  • Millions of others are skipping meals, falling behind on bills and wondering what they can possibly do next to survive

Eg: East Africa one person is likely dying every minute from hunger.

  • Inflation and inequalities increased
  • From Sri Lanka to Sudan, record-high global food prices are sparking social and political upheaval, while 60% of low-income countries are on the brink of debt distress
  • A worker in the bottom 50% would have to work for 112 years to earn what a person in the top 1% gets in a single year.
Rich becoming richer:
  • They have seized a shocking amount of the world’s wealth as a result of privatization and monopolies, gutting regulation and workers’ rights while stashing their cash in tax havens — all with the complicity of governments.
  • Pandemic has created 40 new pharma billionaires and alleged that pharmaceutical corporations

Eg: Moderna and Pfizer

  • The rights group also urged the governments across the world to introduce permanent wealth taxes to rein in extreme wealth and monopoly power, as well as the outsized carbon emissions of the super-rich.

 

World may have lost 11.2 crore jobs: ILO

Context:

  • The report says that after significant gains during the last quarter of 2021, the number of hours worked globally  dropped in the first quarter of 2022, to 3.8% below the employment situation before the pandemic.
  • About 11.2 crore jobs might have lost between this period, according to the report
  • Gender gap in India’s employment data finds mention in the ‘world of work’ report
  • The gender gap in India’s employment scenario is mentioned in the report on the “world of work”
  • The report said both India and lower middle income countries excluding India experienced a deterioration of the gender gap in work hours in the second quarter of 2020.
  • However, because the initial level of hours worked by women in India was very low, the reduction in hours worked by women in India has only a weak influence on the aggregate for lower middle income countries.
  • For every 100 women at work prior to the pandemic, 12.3 women would have lost their job as an average through the entire period considered by the report. The official added that, in contrast, for every 100 men, the equivalent figure would have been 7.5.
Global factors
  • The fresh lockdowns in China, the conflict between Ukraine and Russia, and the global rise in the prices of food and fuel are cited as the main reasons for the findings.
  • The ILO urged its member countries to take a humane approach to address
    this situation. Financial turbulence, potential debt distress and global supply chain
    disruption points at a growing risk of a further deterioration in hours worked in

UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 26th May 2022

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