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UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 2nd February 2022

UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 2nd February 2022

UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 2nd February 2022

                                                                                                  

 Topics     

  • The UNSC joint statement
  • The Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Day
  • Collegium System
  • United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
  • Global geoeconomic churn

  

1.The UNSC joint statement

#GS2-Policies & Politics of World

Context

  • The five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (P5) issued a statement on January 3 that is significant.

In depth information

A summary of the P5 declaration
  • This is a significant statement. It is not a legally binding resolution, but it does repeat several of the NPT’s key obligations.
  • Because of its “far-reaching implications,” a “nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought,” according to the P5 statement.
  • In addition, the statement declares a commitment to the group’s commitments under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of nuclear weapons (NPT) and “to prevent the unauthorised or inadvertent use of nuclear weapons.”
  • Declaring that an arms race would benefit no one and put everyone in risk, the P5 have agreed to:
  • collaborate with all states to establish a more secure environment for disarmament progress, with the ultimate objective of a world free of nuclear weapons.
  • continue to explore bilateral and multilateral diplomatic ways to minimise military clashes, boost stability and predictability, and improve mutual understanding and confidence”
  • foster “constructive discussion grounded in mutual respect and recognition of each other’s security interests and concerns.”
Bold action on six fronts
On six fronts, bold action is required.
  • Establish a nuclear disarmament path: Member nations should establish a nuclear disarmament path.
  • Transparency and dialogue: They must agree on new “transparency and dialogue” initiatives.
  • They should deal with the “simmering” nuclear crises in the Middle East and Asia.
  • Strengthen existing global bodies that assist nonproliferation, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • Peaceful use of nuclear technology: They should promote the use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.
  • Nuclear disarmament: they should remind “the world’s people that the only way to guarantee that nuclear weapons will never be deployed is to eliminate them.”
Education for peace and the freedom to live in peace
  • Peace is important for rights, freedom, equality, and justice, which is why we need “education in the obvious,” or peace education, as Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. put it.
  • This is necessary at numerous levels of social cognition and action, including the planetary, global, supranational, regional, national, and local levels.
  • UN Resolution 39/11 (November 12, 1984) affirms that all peoples on the earth have a sacred right to peace and that “preserving the right of peoples to peace and promoting its implementation constitute a basic commitment of each State.”
  • Gandhi’s legacy and mission were also heavily influenced by the later UN Resolution 53/243 B, which declared a programme of action for a culture of peace in 1999.
Conclusion
  • Given the inconceivable risk posed by the 13,000 nuclear weapons believed to be possessed by a handful of countries, as well as the growing threat of loose nukes deployed by armed terrorist groups for nefarious objectives, the comment is politically significant.
2.The Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Day
#GS2-Issues with Social Sector Health

Context

  • Every year on January 30th, Neglected Tropical Disease Day is commemorated. The 74th World Health Assembly declared it (2021).
  • The United Arab Emirates proposed that the day be commemorated. The delegates unanimously approved it.

In depth information

  • NTDs are a catch-all phrase for a group of 20 medically distinct, infectious illnesses that thrive in impoverished settings, tend to coexist, cause major morbidity and/or mortality, and can be combated using effective ways.
  • NTDs are known to cause lasting disability, have an influence on mental and emotional health, and affect over 1.7 billion people worldwide.

Examples:

  • Lymphatic Filariasis, also known as hathipaon or Elephant Feet in Hindi, is a parasitic NTD that is the world’s second-leading cause of irreversible disability.
  • It targets the lymphatic system of humans, resulting in painful swelling of the limbs (lymphoedema) and genitalia (hydrocele), among other things.
  • Breast and genital disfigurement are prevalent.
  • It’s found in 328 districts spread throughout 21 states and territories.
  • Visceral Leishmaniasis, often known as Kala-Azar or Black Fever, is a parasite NTD spread by sandflies that can be fatal if left untreated.
  • Kala-Azar is found in 54 districts spanning four Indian states.
COVID’s Impact
  • COVID: The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic, which has dominated headlines for the past two years, is similar in many ways to the experiences of persons at risk of contracting Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs).
  • COVID-19 resulted in the temporary suspension of public health programmes in a number of nations. In India, the Lymphatic Filariasis and Kala-Azar elimination programmes were similarly hampered.
  • India adapted, innovated, and rebounded with newfound vigour in response to the challenge.
Government of India initiatives
  • In line with worldwide elimination and control aims, the Indian government is fully dedicated to eradicating NTDs such as Lymphatic Filariasis and Kala-Azar.
  • In endemic areas, preventive approaches like as Mass Drug Administration (MDA) rounds are deployed on a regular basis, during which anti-filarial drugs are distributed free of charge to at-risk groups.
  • In endemic locations, vector-control techniques such as Indoor Residual Spraying rounds are used to prevent sandfly breeding.
  • For patients with lymphoedema and hydrocele, the government also supports morbidity management and disability prevention.
  • State and federal governments have also established pay compensation programmes for persons suffering from Kala-Azar and its sequela, Post-Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis, which is the result of a previous disease or accident.
  • India has created intersectoral coordination with the National Rural Health Mission and the home development sector to deploy both oral and indoor residual spraying of miltefosine.
  • Vaccination of stray dogs and free vaccines are provided by the National Rabies Control Program at Government Hospitals across the country.
  • The Integrated National Rabies Control Program was formed as part of the ‘One Health Approach.’
  • The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program (NVBDCP) is a comprehensive programme for vector-borne disease prevention and control.
  • The National Leprosy Eradication Programme was established in order to eradicate leprosy as a public health issue.
  • In 2017, the National Health Policy was developed, with the goal of stimulating innovation to address health needs and ensuring that new treatments are affordable to those who need them the most.
  • It does not, however, address NTDs directly.
  • The National Policy on Rare Disease Treatment focuses on finding and studying cures for rare diseases and infectious non-communicable diseases (NTDs).
  • Global Health Strategies (GHS), The Leprosy Mission Trust India (TLMTI), and the National Centre for Promotion of Employment for Disabled People (NCPEDP), NTD partners in India, will take an integrated strategy and support one another in a variety of activities to raise awareness about the disease.
  • India is on the verge of eradicating Kala-Azar, with 99 percent of endemic blocks meeting the elimination goal.
Ahead of Schedule
  • COVID-appropriate behaviour on the ground was ensured via innovations such using bowls to give medicines from a safe distance, while interactive dashboards revealed areas of concern in real time and promoted better planning and implementation.
  • India is on the verge of becoming a global leader in the fight against NTDs, but success in this decade would necessitate more strong action.
  • Multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral partnerships and collaboration will continue to play a key role in maintaining the momentum gained as India sticks to its promise to eliminate NTDs.
  • To eliminate these many NTDs, an integrated approach to improve access to excellent healthcare, water, sanitation, hygiene, tackling climate change, guaranteeing gender parity, mental health, and well-being must be at the forefront.

3.Collegium System

#GS2- Judiciary

Context

  • The Supreme Court collegium has suggested that Munishwar Nath Bhandari, the Acting Chief Justice (ACJ) of the Madras High Court, be elevated to Chief Justice.
  • Following the issue of a Presidential notification, he would take the oath of office.

In depth information

The Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Day

What is the Collegium System, and how does it work?
  • It is a revolutionary process designed to ensure that judges are appointed and transferred in a democratic manner.
  • It was founded on the decisions of the Second and Third Judges Cases.
  • Please note that the collegium system is neither mentioned or defined in any legislation or constitutional requirement.
  • It is led by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and consists of the court’s four most senior judges.
  • A HC collegium is led by the Chief Justice and four of the court’s most senior judges.
  • The NJAC was intended to replace the Collegium System, but it was declared illegal by the Supreme Court.
Evolution:
  • The ‘Judges Cases,’ a series of Supreme Court decisions, gave birth to the collegium system.
  • S P Gupta vs Union of India, 1981: In S P Gupta vs Union of India, 1981, the Supreme Court declared that consultation does not imply agreement, but rather an exchange of opinions.
  • A nine-judge Constitution Bench rejected the ruling in The Supreme Court Advocates-on-Record Association Vs Union of India, 1993, and developed a specific mechanism known as the “Collegium System” for the appointment and transfer of judges in the higher judiciary.
  • In the Second Judges Case, the majority finding gave the CJI primacy in terms of appointment and transfers, while also ruling that the phrase “consultation” did not lessen the CJI’s primary role in judge nominations.
  • Because this is a judicial issue, the CJI’s role is paramount. The administration cannot have an equal say in the subject.
  • CASE OF THE THIRD JUDGES: The Court stated in the Third Judges case (1998) that the Chief Justice of India’s consultation process requires “consultation with plurality judges.”
  • The consultation process is not defined by the CJI’s single opinion.
  • He should consult a collegium of four Supreme Court senior judges, and even if two of them disagree, he should not convey the suggestion to the administration.
  • The court ruled that the top justice of India’s recommendation, which was made without following the consultation process’s standards and requirements, was not binding on the government.
The Government’s Role in Judicial Appointments
  • The government has a limited role to play.
  • If a lawyer wants to be elevated as a judge in a High Court or the Supreme Court, the Home Ministry must conduct an investigation.
  • It can also object to the collegium’s decisions and ask for clarifications.
  • However, if the collegium repeats the same names, the government is obligated to nominate them as judges under Constitution Bench decisions.
Objections to the Collegium System
  • Transparency and accountability are lacking.
  • Look out for nepotism.
  • In public controversies, embarrassment.
  • Several brilliant junior judges and advocates are overlooked.
  • Concerns have been raised, and efforts have been made to remedy them.
  • The government appointed the Justice M N Venkatachaliah Commission, which supported the change and recommended the formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) comprised of the Chief Justice of India and two senior-most judges.
The law minister
  • The President, in collaboration with the CJI, will select a renowned member of the public.
  • The 99th Constitutional Amendment Act, the National Judicial Commission Act (NJAC), was introduced by the government in 2014 to replace the collegium system for appointing judges.
  • They were deemed unlawful in 2015 by a five-judge Constitution Bench on the grounds that they presented a threat to the judiciary’s independence.
  • The collegium method will continue to be used to appoint justices, with the Chief Justice of the United States having “the last say.”
Ahead of Schedule
  • The Supreme Court’s requirement for collegial leadership and transparent decision-making is highlighted by the dispute surrounding the collegium’s recommendations.
  • Both the government and the Collegium’s “thinking processes” should be adjusted, and a time period for both the Collegium and the Ministry to complete the selection process should be set.
  • Rather than examining names from the Supreme Court Bar on an ad hoc basis, there should be an institutional foundation for doing so.
  • It should be done on a regular basis rather than as an exception.

4.United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)

#GS2- Important International Institutions

Context

  • The Economic Survey 2021-22 recommended the Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code as a harmonised framework for cross-border insolvency (IBC).

In depth information

  • Currently, the IBC does not permit automatic recognition of insolvency proceedings in foreign countries.
  • For creditors, borrowers, and other stakeholders, the current laws create ambiguity about the resolution of claims.
  • This will assist debt-ridden enterprises’ lenders in claiming and recovering their assets and liabilities on international countries as well.
UNCITRAL is required.
  • It was emphasised in the Insolvency Law Committee’s (ILC) report, which recommended that the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) be adopted with some adjustments to make it more appropriate for the Indian context.
  • Faster growth, greater living standards, and more opportunities are all benefits of trade.
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
  • It is the United Nations system’s primary legal body in the subject of international trade law.
  • The United Nations Commission on International Economic Law (UNCITRAL) was founded in 1966 with the awareness that “international trade cooperation among States is an important factor in the fostering of friendly relations and, as a result, in the maintenance of peace and security.”
  • Its primary focus is on the modernisation and harmonisation of international business norms.
  • UNCITRAL has 60 members, 14 from Asia, 14 from Africa, 10 from Latin America and the Caribbean, 8 from Eastern Europe, and 14 from Western Europe and other countries, all of whom are elected for six years.
Role of UNCITRAL:
  • UNCITRAL is developing modern, equitable, and unified commercial transaction rules. Includes universally accepted conventions, model laws, and rules.
  • Guides and recommendations on legal and legislative issues that are quite useful.
  • Case law and uniform commercial law enactments are kept up to date.
  • In law reform programmes, technical support is provided.
  • Seminars on uniform business law are held at regional and national levels.

5.Global geoeconomic churn

#GS2-Bilateral, Regional and agreements

Context

  • India’s geopolitical importance in the world will continue to climb as it returns to a high growth path after a decade of stagnation.

In depth information

India’s storey of development
  • India’s GDP is currently $3.1 trillion and is expected to reach $8 trillion by the end of the decade, according to some projections.
  • India’s total commerce is estimated to reach $1.3 trillion this year, up from $38 billion in 1991-92.
  • This amounts to almost 40% of India’s GDP and demonstrates that the country is more intertwined with the rest of the globe than it has ever been.
  • However, the transition from three to eight trillion dollars in GDP will not be smooth; nor will it be easy to protect India’s interests as the country becomes more integrated with the rest of the globe.
  • The fact that the world is in a geo-economic tumult makes the shift difficult.
Changes in the world order in terms of geoeconomics and geopolitics
Changes in the global economy
  • In a crucial article published in 1990, amidst the conclusion of the Cold War, Edward Luttwak, a well-known American strategist, sparked a global debate on the concept of geoeconomics.
  • Taking advantage of economic power for political gain: China’s fast economic ascent over the previous three decades, as well as Beijing’s effectiveness in using its expanding economic weight for political benefit, is often seen as a textbook case of geoeconomics.
Economic interconnectedness:
  • Major shifts in US-China ties in recent years have borne out Luttwak’s warning against illusions of economic interdependence and globalisation.
  • The rapid increase in economic interdependence between China and the United States over the last four decades — dubbed “Chimerica” by some — was the primary evidence supporting the notion that geopolitics and ideology were no longer relevant.
  • Chimerica was hailed as a successful economic fusion that exemplified the benefits of globalisation.
  • Economic nationalism, on the other hand, has resurfaced in both countries today.
  • In order to compete more effectively with China, the United States is likewise bolstering its own research and manufacturing capabilities.
  • Not only the United States is turning away from globalisation.
  • China has also chosen a “dual circulation” economic policy, which focuses on increasing internal capabilities while decreasing susceptibility to external forces.
How are India’s free trade policies influenced by geopolitical and geoeconomic changes?
  • India withdrew from the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) at the end of 2019, implying that the costs of joining a regional economic order centred on China are too high.
  • After quitting the RCEP, Delhi has shifted its focus to free trade deals with nations such as Australia, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, and Israel.
  • Deepening India’s connection with complementary economies: This must be viewed as the start of a longer process of India’s interaction with complementary economies.
  • India, like the United States and China, is contending that in the spirit of economic efficiency and globalisation, no large country can simply outsource domestic production to other countries.
  • Under the banner of “Atmanirbhar Bharat,” India is now adopting a number of steps to promote domestic manufacturing in a variety of areas.
For India, the future seems bright.
  • India had the luxury of regarding its foreign, economic, and strategic policy as distinct spheres until recently.
  • Taking a holistic approach to policymaking: In order to adapt to the current global geoeconomic turbulence, Delhi must improve the integration of its financial, trade, technology, security, and foreign policies.
  • Above all, India needs a strategy that can address the imperatives of strengthening internal capabilities, forging geoeconomic partnerships, and forming geopolitical alliances with like-minded nations.
Conclusion

India has been chastised for its selective trade agreements and measures to encourage home manufacturing. Those arguments must continue, but they must be more directly linked to structural changes in the international economic order.

UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 2nd February 2022

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