UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 4th February 2022
- The Comprehensive Amendment of Criminal Laws
- Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti
- Artificial intelligence and climate cost
- Budget 2022-23- continuity with trust
- J&K Delimitation Commission
1.The Comprehensive Amendment of Criminal Laws
#GS2-Executive & Judiciary
- In consultation with all stakeholders, the central government has started the process of amending India’s criminal laws comprehensively.
In depth information
India’s Criminal Laws
- The Indian penal code is broken into three acts:
- The Indian Penal Code, or IPC, was enacted in 1860 and is a comprehensive code that covers all substantive aspects of criminal law.
- The Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), enacted in 1973, establishes the principles by which substantive laws can be executed.
- The Indian Evidence Act of 1872 is a set of regulations and related problems that govern the admissibility of evidence in Indian courts.
Aside from these important acts, the Indian Parliament also passes unique criminal laws, such as:
- Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
- Prevention of Corruption Act
- Food Adulteration Act
- Dowry Prohibition Act
- The Defence of India Act, etc.
Problems with the laws
- The code is dominated by colonial ideals.
- Some legislation do not represent India’s liberal Constitution’s goals.
- It does not recognise citizens of a free India’s individual agency.
- Too many laws promote patriarchal views that are discriminatory toward women.
The government abuses sedition laws.
- The terms “tech crimes,” “cyber crimes,” and “sexual offences” must all be defined.
- Excessive policing may result in harassment of individuals.
- It is necessary to reconcile statute books with court judgements, which have frequently enlarged people’s rights.
- Some laws are disadvantageous to the poor who are incarcerated for extended periods of time, while they benefit the powerful who can easily obtain bail.
- The impact of media trials on the courts when the IPC is used
Why would you want to change them?
- The development of criminal legislation is a never-ending process.
- They must be created in accordance with people’s current requirements and goals.
- The Malimath Committee has urged for criminal justice reform in India.
So far, progress has been accomplished.
- The entire procedure is lengthy, and there is no way to set or assign a deadline for this legislative process.
- Given the wide range of divergent viewpoints among stakeholders, enacting such laws is a difficult and time-consuming process.
- In this context, the Home Ministry is soliciting input from various stakeholders and judicial luminaries.
2.Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti
- On the Urs of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti, the Prime Minister of India handed a Chadar to be offered at the Ajmer Sharif Dargah
In depth information
Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti’s biography.
- In the years 1141-42 CE, he was born in Iran.
- He was a Sufi mystic, philosopher, and saint.
- In the Indian Subcontinent, he is the most well-known saint of the Chishti Sufi order.
- Also known as ‘Benefactor of the Poor’ and ‘Gharib Nawaaz.’
- He made Ajmer, Rajasthan, his home, and the Ajmer Sharif Dargah is where he is buried.
- Both Hindus and Muslims offer chadar for prayer at his Dargah, symbolising the spirit of mutual respect and unity in India’s diversity.
- He lived at the same time as Qutub-ud-din Aibak and Iltutmish.
- He died in the year 1236.
- Millions of Hindus and Muslims were motivated by his sermons to follow the path of truth and harmony.
- His dictum “Sulh-i-Kul” was emulated and embodied by followers of all religions (Peace with all).
- As a result, Jesus sent a message of worldwide love and peace.
- He achieved his goals of uniting the numerous castes, communities, and races, as well as lifting humankind out of the quagmire of materialistic concerns that is dragging society down.
3.Artificial intelligence and climate cost
#GS3- Science Tech
- While the attractiveness of national dreams of economic success and global competitiveness, backed by AI, is appealing, there is a price to be paid in terms of the environment.
In depth information
- In AI, there is an unfair race for dominance. A few mature economies not only have material advantages from the start, but they also make the rules.
- They have a research and development advantage, as well as a competent workforce and the financial means to invest in AI.
- Inequality in the governance of the state: In terms of governance, we may also look at the level of injustice in AI: In developing and poor countries, how “tech savvy” are policymakers?
- What obstacles do they confront when it comes to developing rules and industrial policies?
- At the same time, a new concern is arising at the intersection of AI and climate change, which has the potential to exacerbate inequalities.
AI’s impact on the environment
- AI has a variety of effects on the environment: One example is the energy used in training and operating massive AI models.
- Digital technology will account for between 1.8 and 6.3 percent of world emissions in 2020.
- In November 2021, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) endorsed the UNESCO issued the Recommendation on Artificial Intelligence Ethics in November 2021, urging actors to “minimise the environmental impact of AI systems, including but not limited to its carbon footprint.”
Inequitable resource distribution
- Both global AI governance and (historically) climate change policy are divisive due to unequal access to resources.
- On two fronts, developing and poor countries face challenges:
- Only a few countries profit from AI’s social and economic benefits.
- The developed West is driving the majority of current initiatives and discourses on the link between AI and climate change.
a path forward
- Assess technology-led priorities: Developing-country governments, including India’s, should evaluate their technology-led growth priorities in light of AI’s climate costs.
- It is believed that because emerging countries are not burdened with legacy infrastructure, they will be able to “build up better.”
4.Budget 2022-23- continuity with trust
#GS3: Government Budgeting
- Each Budget must adapt to current difficulties while also being attentive to the mood of the times. In this way, this year is a little different.
Budgeting is a delicate balancing act.
- Atypical expenditure pressures were imposed by the growing pandemic.
- Elections are looming in five key states, including Uttar Pradesh.
- The importance of fiscal stimulus for job development and alleviation for the MSME and informal sectors is emphasised.
- Investor confidence is bolstered by tax policy consistency: there are no tax hikes generally expected during a pandemic through improved health cess or a pandemic tax, which is no small feat.
- Investor trust is bolstered by tax policy consistency and the avoidance of unpleasant shocks.
- The focus has shifted to capital expenditure, which has increased by 26% from Rs 4.39 trillion in FY21 to Rs 5.54 trillion in FY22.
- Increased capex will result in the creation of new jobs.
- It will also result in asset creation, such as through the National Highways Development Programme and National Infrastructure, giving Gati Shakti a boost.
- Encouragement of states to increase capex by supporting capital outlays of Rs 1 lakh crore will make a big difference in their efforts to improve infrastructure through state highways, the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, and other associated logistics.
- Budgeting without populism: This focus on productive capital expenditures comes before of elections in five states.
- The PM’s choice to avoid a populist budget is consistent with his goal of improving our long-term competitive efficiency while supporting growth goals and a fresh export surge.
- Fiscal consolidation: A half-percentage-point fiscal consolidation for the following year is important.
- This is in line with the 4.5 percent fiscal deficit target set for the end of 2024-25.
- Without a doubt, this is slightly higher than the FRBM Act’s minimum 3% and slightly out of line with the Finance Commission’s suggested 4%.
- The approval of a borrowing ceiling of 4% rather than 3% in the state FRBM with 0.5 percent reserved for power sector reforms, as recommended by the Fifteenth Finance Commissions, will increase the states’ overall economic efficiencies.
Revenues are increasing.
- Over the coming year, sustained efforts to improve GST outcomes as well as direct taxes will result in a tax to GDP ratio of roughly 10.7%.
- The GST Council must now take more decisive action in the areas of broad banding, inverted duty structures, and inclusion excluded items, as well as overall compliance.
- According to international estimates, we are losing around 4 percentage points of GDP in total income realisation.
Budget reading with fiscal policy statement under the FRBM Act
- Countries with a fiscal rule, according to the IMF’s Fiscal Monitor report released in late October 2021, must focus more clearly on cyclically adjusted fiscal balance.
- In terms of debt, the research offers a 10-year period for harmonising emerging markets’ original debt targets.
- The current debt-to-GDP ratio of 90.6 percent is a little too high.
- Given the enormous debt stock, dramatic adjustments are unlikely in a single year.
- However, the trend is in the right way.
Provision for a few key industries
- Agriculture:Improving farm incomes and long-term agricultural productivity, particularly crop diversification, is part of the budget approach.
- For market-based economies to gain from the agriculture sector, land records must be digitised.
- The importance of bridging the digital divide has been emphasised.
- The establishment of 200 television stations as well as digital universities are significant moves forward.
- Technology: In terms of technology, the 5G spectrum specified in the budget, as well as AI and machine learning, will expand the scope of the technological revolution.
- The necessity for better integrated urban planning in making the urban sector a true engine of growth has been reflected in the budget, with the formation of a high-level committee being recommended.
- The replication of Gati Shakti for the Northeast states has received a lot of attention.
a path forward
- Increase health spending: Health spending by the government has stayed relatively constant.
- Hopefully, this will be addressed in some way.
- Expedite the BharatNet Scheme: The BharatNet Scheme’s mission for providing high-speed digital connectivity to all communities has been delayed.
- Transition to renewable energy: On the energy transition and the outcomes of COP26, as well as reiterating PM Modi’s Panchamrit promises.
- The green bonds will supplement resources, but each of the Panchamrit’s components, including a coal transition map, deserves more study.
- Private investment through innovative actions: It is critical to take new initiatives to attract private investment via guarantees and regulatory changes.
- Creation of credible fiscal institutions: Action on the creation of credible fiscal institutions has been a stumbling block.
- Factor in uncertainties: We must be aware of geopolitical risks, crude oil price volatility, the ongoing epidemic, and the global recovery process.
- Atypical expenditure pressures were imposed by the growing pandemic. This budget is a laudable balancing exercise in this circumstances.
5.J&K Delimitation Commission
#GS2-Representation Of People’s Act
- This month, the J&K Delimitation Commission is likely to get a second term extension.
In depth information
What exactly is delimitation, and why is it necessary?
- The act of redrawing the boundaries of an Assembly or Lok Sabha seat to reflect changes in population over time is known as delimitation.
- This process is overseen by a Delimitation Commission, whose decisions are binding and cannot be challenged in court.
- The goal is to redraw boundaries (based on the most recent Census data) in such a way that the population of all seats is as uniform as possible throughout the state.
- The process may result in a change in the number of seats in a state, in addition to changing the boundaries of a constituency.
Delimitation in Jammu and Kashmir
- In 1963, 1973, and 1995, assembly seats in J&K were delineated.
- Prior to August 5, 2019, the J&K Constitution and the Jammu and Kashmir Representation of the People Act, 1957 were used to carve out Assembly seats.
- Until then, the Indian Constitution oversaw the delimitation of Lok Sabha seats in J&K.
- The J&K Constitution and the J&K Representation of the People Act, 1957, governed the delimitation of the state’s Assembly.
- Because there was no census in 1991, the state did not establish a Delimitation Commission until the 2001 census.
What’s the deal with it being in the news again?
- Following the abolition of J&K’s special status in 2019, the newly-created UT’s Lok Sabha and Assembly seats will be delineated in accordance with Indian Constitutional rules.
- The government established the Delimitation Commission on March 6, 2020, under the leadership of former Supreme Court judge Ranjana Prakash Desai, with the goal of completing delimitation in J&K within a year.
- The number of Assembly seats in J&K would grow from 107 to 114 under the J&K Reorganization Bill, which is projected to favour the Jammu area.
Factors taken into account during delimitation
- Since the last delimitation, the number of districts has expanded from 12 to 20, and the number of tehsils has increased from 52 to 207.
- Kishtwar had a population density of 29 people per square kilometre, whereas Srinagar had a population density of 3,436 people per square kilometre.
- The process also takes into account the location’s remoteness, inaccessibility, and other factors.
Concerns about Delimitation have been raised.
- Jammu vs. Kashmir: There have been concerns that the delimitation process will favour the Jammu region over Kashmir in terms of seats.
- Ladakh’s underrepresentation: There have been arguments over how Ladakh has been underrepresented, with demands for statehood and inclusion in the sixth schedule.
- Non-proportionate reservations: It is stated that because the ST population is nearly equal in both Jammu and Kashmir, seats for STs should have been apportioned in both provinces.
UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 4th February 2022
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