Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

UPSC Civils Daily Mains Question 18th June-2021

Discuss various government measures to reduce Naxalism. Examine various loopholes that are preventing effective implementation of government strategies.

Naxalism is a term used to define violent activities on behalf of landless labourers and tribal people against landlords and others by some individuals and groups.

Measures taken by the government to reduce Naxalism

  • SAMADHAN – stands for Smart leadership, Aggressive strategy, Motivation and training, actionable intelligence, Dashboard Based KPIs (key performance indicators) and KRAs (key result areas), Harnessing technology, an Action plan for each theatre, and No access to financing.
  • Police Modernization Scheme in areas affected by Naxal movements.
  • Mine Protected Vehicles (MPV) to reduce the number of casualties due to use of IED by the Naxalites.
  • Augmenting the strength of Central Armed Police Forces
  • Establishment of National Security Guard (NSG) hubs at Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Mumbai;
  • Strengthening and re-organizing of Multi-Agency Centre to enable it to function on 24×7 basis
  • Sanctioning of new Specialized India Reserve Battalions (SIRB).
  • Special Infrastructure Scheme for funds to the States of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Odisha to raise Special Task Force to combat LWE.
  • Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 has been amended to strengthen the punitive measures.
  • Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme: Under this the central Govt. reimburses security related expenditure to the LWE affected state Governments.
  • Civic Action Programme – To bridge the gaps between Security Forces and local people through personal interaction and bring the human face of SFs before the local population.
  • Media Plan: Under the scheme activities like Tribal Youth Exchange programmes organised by NYKS, radio jingles, documentaries, pamphlets etc. are being conducted.
  • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) – offers tremendous opportunities for rural road connectivity.
  • National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (NREGP) is being implemented in 330 districts affected by Naxalism so as to universalize the demand-driven programme for wage-employment.
  • Bharat Nirman, National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and other income generating and social security schemes of the Ministry of Rural Development, Agriculture, Panchayati Raj and Tribal affairs.
  • Aspirational District: Monitoring of Aspirational districts programme in 35 LWE affected districts.

Various loopholes that are preventing effective implementation of government strategies

  • Weak coordination between the States affected – States (both affected and non-affected) restrict their efforts to the defined political boundaries instead of walking the extra mile for better synergy and coordination.
  • Inefficient Delivery of Governance – Still, basic and essential services, justice delivery, community participation among others remain elusive to most of the Naxal affected areas of our country.
  • Trust Deficit – Locals, especially in Naxal affected areas, are still sceptical and insecure regarding the intentions of the government and security forces. Their engagement is imperative in dealing with the naxal menace.
  • Inability to Maintain Created Assets – This weakens the position of both the government and the security forces deployed as it hampers the trust of locals, disrupts channels of communication etc.
  • Ineffective Democratic Decentralisation – Half hearted and weak ground implementation of PESA, provisions of the sixth & fifth schedule and even PRIs has definitely helped in not containing the problem.
  • Poor Forest Governance – Continuous weakening of forest governance laws and related rights of dwellers as evidenced through recent draft India forest Act and the decision of eviction of forest dwellers by SC has made meaningful engagement difficult & uncertain.
  • Unutilized potential of corporates, media and civil society – To ensure effective reach of benefits to the naxal affected areas it is essential to rope in all sections of society. Media and Corporates though can play a transformative role have not been leveraged yet.
  • Absence of Co-ordinated Proactive Vigilance – Weak coordination between central and state agencies results in the development of security voids captured subsequently by naxals.
  • Passive Role of State Police Forces – State police forces have usually not been in the frontline despite of them being well acquainted with the terrain, local community etc.
  • Role of External States – Role of neighbours and even terrorist organisations has been established through several reports in fueling naxalism in India through supply of finances and arms by leveraging porous and poorly managed border areas.
  • Weak Local Intelligence Gathering – Weakest link in our strategy so far has been timely collection of intelligence and its efficient dissemination.
  • Rise of Urban Naxalism – Ideological supporters in the urban areas and at key positions have not only fueled but also have helped naxalism in attaining an organised structure.
  • Inability to Curb Terror Financing – Any act of violence cannot be sustained without finance. Demonetisation though attempted failed to check it comprehensively.
  • Inadequate Technological Interventions – Use of drones, mini UAVs, ground sensors, smart guns and artificial intelligence have not been aggressively deployed in naxal areas.
  • Standard Operating Procedures – All major naxal attacks have been possible owing to failure of effective implementation of SoPs. In the recent attack in Dantewada (C.G), it was emerged that the troops did not follow SoPs.

Ill Conceived Decisions – The unceasing requisitioning of paramilitary forces for the elections in West Bengal weakened the security grid around Maharashtra’s Maoist heartland that led to Gadchiroli attack.


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