Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

UPSC Civils Daily Mains Question 30th June-2021

Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 16 commits member states to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development”. This goal cannot be achieved in an environment of extremism. Do you agree? Describe various developmental issues that led to the spread of extremism in India.

The Sustainable Development Goals are a set of seventeen pointer targets that all the countries which are members of the UN agreed to work upon for the better future of the country. The SDG 16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

As extremism will be a security threat, social challenges, psychological, economic and political concerns. Hence in such an environment the 16th goal of sustainable development cannot be achieved.

  • Various developmental issues that led to the spread of extremism in India

Forest Laws

  • Rights of primitive forest dwellers were restricted resulting in losing access to land. This resulted in mass resentment leading to extremist activities.
  • Land Fragmentation
  • Increased small/marginal land holdings and no land reforms, Insecurity, and exploitation of tenants creates unrest which leads to extremism

Encroachment on Common Property Resources-

  • Common Property Resources (CPR’s) include community pastures, watershed drainages, village tanks etc. and are vital for rural areas to develop.
  • CPR’s contribute effectively to the rural economy and provide sustenance to local communities.
  • But due to industrialization, privatization and development projects, the CPRs area is shrinking and this also increases resentment of villagers.

Displacement due to developmental projects

  • Displacement/ forced eviction of people occur due to developmental projects such as irrigation, industrial projects, mining projects, power plants etc. It can be physical, emotional or cultural.
  • Tribal people are most prone to displacement because tribal areas are rich in mineral resources such as Orissa, Jharkhand. This imparts multidimensional trauma on them leading to serious consequences.


  • Tourism industry in this development scenario is posing a great threat to the existing cultural-economy-governance matrix of tribal life which is interwoven with ecology.
  • The introduction of foreign influence and commercialization is triggering the process of disintegration of tribal society leading to extremist activities.

Government should work with faith-based organizations and religious leaders to counter the abuse of religion by extremists.

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