Djibouti Code of Conduct:
- It is also known as the Code of Conduct concerning the Repression of Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden.
-It was adopted on 29th January 2009.
-It was established under the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
- Objective: Under the code, the signatories agreed to co-operate to the fullest possible extent in the repression of piracy and armed robbery against ships.
- Signatories: It has been signed by 20 countries including Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, the United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Comoros, Egypt, Eritrea, Jordan, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sudan and the United Arab Emirates.
-The member states are located in areas adjoining the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and the east coast of Africa and include island nations in the Indian Ocean.
- Observers: India, Japan, Norway, the UK and the USA.
- It was adopted by 195 parties at the UN climate conference “COP 21” held in Paris in 2015 with an aim to reduce the hazardous greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
- Objective: To prevent an increase in global average temperature and keep it well below 2 degrees Celsius.
- It emphasised that global GHG emissions must fall 45% by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050 to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.
- 19 members of the G20, except the USA which has pulled out of it, have voiced their commitment to the full implementation of the deal.
- It is an informal group of 19 countries and the European Union (EU), with representatives of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
- Headquarters: It operates as a forum and not as an organisation. Therefore, it does not have any permanent secretariat or management and administrative structure.
- Members: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the UK, the USA, and the EU.
Adenovirus Vector Vaccine:
- In this vaccine, adenovirus is used as a tool to deliver genes or vaccine antigens to the target host tissue.
- Adenoviruses (ADVs) are DNA viruses ranging from 70-90 nanometre in size, which induce many illnesses in humans like cold, respiratory infection etc.
- Adenoviruses are preferred for vaccines because their DNA is double stranded which makes them genetically more stable and the chances of them changing after injection are lower.
- However, there are drawbacks of adenovirus vector vaccines like pre-existing immunity in humans and inflammatory responses which may make vaccines less effective.
Kalinga Cricket Frog:
- Scientific Name: Fejervarya kalinga.
- It is a recently identified species which was documented in 2018.
- It was thought to be endemic only to the higher-elevation hill ranges of the Eastern Ghats in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
- Cricket frogs are indicators of a healthy ecosystem and live in wide habitat ranges in agricultural fields, streams, swamps and wetlands.
Securities Transaction Tax:
- It is a tax levied at the time of purchase and sale of securities listed on stock exchanges in India.
- Both purchaser and seller both need to pay 0.1% of share value as STT.
World Wildlife Fund for Nature:
- It is the world’s leading conservation organization and works in more than 100 countries.
- It was established in 1961 and is headquartered at Gland, Switzerland.
- Its mission is to conserve nature and reduce the most pressing threats to the diversity of life on Earth.
- WWF collaborates at every level with people around the world to develop and deliver innovative solutions that protect communities, wildlife, and the places in which they live.
- Phosphine is a phosphorus atom with three hydrogen atoms attached (PH3) – is highly toxic to people.
- On rocky planets such as Venus and Earth, phosphine can only be made by life—whether human or microbe.
- Phosphine is made naturally by some species of anaerobic bacteria—organisms that live in the oxygen-starved environments of landfills, marshlands, and even animal guts.
-To produce phosphine, Earth bacteria take up phosphate from minerals or biological material and add hydrogen.
- Phosphine also arises non-biologically in certain industrial settings.
Western and Eastern Ghats:
- The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats are the two different biogeographic zones, with unique histories.
- While the Western Ghats are considered as a biodiversity hotspot, that is not the case with the Eastern Ghats.
- Geologically, the Western Ghats are ancient, having Gondwanaland relict forests in the south, while the formation of the Eastern Ghats is recent.
- Both landscapes have unique ecosystems, with special microclimates and microhabitats that support a great number of diversities including amphibians.