Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

Important Terms in 30th September -2020 News


Shaheen Bagh case:

  • The Shaheen Bagh protest was a sit-in peaceful protest, led by women, that began in response to the passage of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) in both houses of Parliament on 11 December 2019 and the ensuing police intervention against students at Jamia Millia Islamia who were opposing the Amendment.
  • Protesters agitated not only against the citizenship issues of the CAA, National Register of Citizens (NRC) and National Population Register (NPR), but also against police brutality, unemployment, poverty and for women’s safety.
  • Mainly consisting of Muslim women, the protesters at Shaheen Bagh, since 14 December 2019.
  • The protests ended on 24 March 2020 as Delhi Police vacated the site due to coronavirus pandemic.


Investor¬ State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) tribunal:

  • ISDS or investment court system (ICS) is a system through which individual companies can sue countries for alleged discriminatory practices.
  • If an investor from one country (the “home state”) invests in another country (the “host state”), both of which have agreed to ISDS, and the host state violates the rights granted to the investor under public international law, then that investor may bring the matter before an arbitral tribunal.
  • Foreign investors alone (including their subsidiaries and shareholders) are able to initiate claims against the government; the government cannot initiate an ISDS proceeding.
  • The decision-makers in these ISDS proceedings are private arbitrators appointed on a case by-case basis to decide the investors’ claims against the host government.


ESG Fund:

  • ESG is a combination of three words i.e. environment, social and governance.
  • It is a kind of mutual fund. Its investing is used synonymously with sustainable investing or socially responsible investing.
  • Typically, a mutual fund looks for a good stock of a company that has potential earnings, management quality, cash flows, the business it operates in, competition etc.
  • However, while selecting a stock for investment, the ESG fund shortlists companies that score high on environment, social responsibility and corporate governance, and then looks into financial factors.
  • Therefore, the key difference between the ESG funds and other funds is ‘conscience’ i.e the ESG fund focuses on companies with environment-friendly practices, ethical business practices and an employee-friendly record.
  • The fund is regulated by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
  • The first ESG mutual fund was launched by the State Bank of India – SBI Magnum Equity ESG Fund.


Article 254(2):

  • It enables a State government to pass a law, on any subject in the Concurrent List, that may contradict a Central law, provided it gets the President’s assent.

-In 2014, the Rajasthan government took this Article 254 (2) route to make changes to the central labour laws — the Factories Act, the Industrial Disputes act, and the Contract Labour Act — which subsequently got the President’s assent.

  • However, the Parliament is not barred from enacting at any time any law with respect to the same matter including a law adding to, amending, varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislature of the State.


Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation:

  • It is a government organisation that manages the provident fund and pension accounts for the workforce engaged in the organized sector in India.
  • It implements the Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952.

-The Act provides for the institution of provident funds for employees in factories and other establishments.

  • It is administered by the Ministry of Labour and Employment.



  • It is a unified, secure, multi-channel, multi-platform, multi-lingual, multi-service mobile app.
  • It is developed by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and National e-Governance Division (NeGD) to drive mobile governance under Digital India.
  • It provides a single platform to citizens for accessing pan India e-Government services ranging from central to local government bodies and other citizen-centric services.
  • Services Provided: Filing income tax, EPFO services, Aadhar, Pension, ePathshala, e- Land Records, Crop Insurance etc.


Long-billed vulture:

  • Long-billed vulture, commonly known as the Indian vulture.
  • Scientific Name: Gyps indicus
  • IUCN Red List Status: Critically Endangered
  • CITES Status: Appendix II
  • Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 Status: Schedule I

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