CURRENT AFFAIRS 20-12-2021
Daily Current Affairs – Topics
- The Chalcolithic Culture in Central India
- The Right to Be Forgotten
- India and Vietnam Relation
- Kalibari Temple
- Tamil Nadu makes it mandatory to stand while state song is being played
1. The Chalcolithic Culture in Central India
#GS1-Ancient Indian History
- In the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has conducted excavations at two significant Chalcolithic affiliation sites in Central India (Eran, district Sagar, and Tewar, district Jabalpur).
In depth information
Culture of the Chalcolithic Period:
- Metals were first used at the conclusion of the Neolithic period. Copper and stone instruments were used by a number of cultures.
- This culture is known as Chalcolithic, and as the name implies, both metal and stone were used to make equipment in everyday life throughout the Chalcolithic (Chalco = Copper and Lithic = Stone) period.
- Following the Bronze Age Harappa culture came the Chalcolithic cultures.
- It lasted from about 2500 BC to 700 BC.
- The Chalcolithic culture of a region was distinguished by certain salient qualities found in pottery and other cultural items such as copper artefacts, semi-precious stone beads, stone tools, and terracotta figurines.
- Rural Settlements: The majority of the population lived in rural areas among hills and rivers.
- Hunting, fishing, and farming were the primary sources of food for the Chalcolithic people.
- Regional Variances: Regional differences emerge in social structure, grains, and pottery.
- Migration: During the Chalcolithic period, migration and demographic group dispersal were frequently suggested as reasons for the emergence of diverse cultures.
- Since this was India’s first metal age, copper and its alloy bronze, which melts at a low temperature, were employed to create a variety of things at this time.
- The Chalcolithic culture was known for its wheel-thrown pottery, which was predominantly red and orange in colour.
- People throughout the Chalcolithic period employed various forms of pottery. Among them, black-and-red pottery was quite common.
- There was also Ochre-Coloured Pottery (OCP) in use.
- Eran (ancient Airikina) is on the left bank of the Bina (ancient Venva) river, which it borders on three sides.
- A copper coin, an iron arrowhead, terracotta bead, stone beads along with a copper coin, stone celt, beads of steatite and jasper, glass, carnelian, terracotta wheel, animal figurines, miniature pots, iron objects, stone querns, pestles, and a red slipped terracotta with inscription in Devnagari were discovered during the recent excavation at this site in 2020-21.
- The presence of a few plain, thin grey ware examples is notable.
- Few metallic items were found at the site, indicating that iron was used.
Excavation at Tewar during 2020-21:
- On the Jabalpur – Bhopal route, Tewar (Tripuri) village lies 12 kilometres west of Jabalpur district.
- The Kushana, Shunga, Satavahana, and Kalachuri cultural sequences were discovered in this dig.
- In this excavation, antiquarian remains include sculptures, hopscotch, terracotta balls, Iron nails, copper coins, terracotta beads, iron and terracotta figurines, red ware, black ware, red slipped ware in the shapes of handi, bowl, spouted pot, small pot, big jar, and structural remains such as brick wall and sandstone column structure.
2. The Right to Be Forgotten
#GS2- Government Policies & Interventions
- In response to a petition, the Centre told the Delhi High Court that the Data Protection Bill included provisions for the ‘right to be forgotten.’
- The Court’s Position
- An individual’s right to exercise control over his or her personal data and to live in charge of his or her own life would also include his or her right to govern his or her online presence.
In depth information
In India, you have the right to be forgotten (RTBF)
- The concept of RTBF is relatively new. In an affidavit, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) declared that India is developing the worldwide legal notion of “right to be forgotten.”
- It is the right to have personal information removed from publicly accessible sources, such as the internet and search engines, databases, and webpages, once the material is no longer essential or relevant.
- The Right to be Forgotten is part of an individual’s right to privacy, which is governed by the Personal Data Protection Bill, which Parliament has yet to adopt.
- The Supreme Court recognised the right to privacy a basic right in a landmark decision in 2017.
- “The right to privacy is safeguarded as an integral aspect of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms granted by Part III of the Constitution,” the court said at the time.
Mention in PDP Bill
- The PDP bill attempts to provide safeguards for the protection of persons’ personal data.
- The “Right to be Forgotten” is mentioned in Clause 20 of Chapter V of this bill, which is titled “Rights of Data Principal.”
- It specifies that the “data principal (the person to whom the data is related) must have the right to restrict or prevent a data fiduciary from continuing to disclose his personal data.”
- Any person, whether the state, a firm, a legal entity, or an individual, who chooses the purpose and means of processing personal data alone or in collaboration with others is referred to as a data fiduciary.
- European Union: According to the Center for Internet and Society, the “right to be forgotten” gained traction after a Spanish court sent the case to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEC) in 2014.
- It was a dispute between Google and a person whose information was displayed in the search engine.
- This decision was seen as a significant victory for Google, as it established that the EU’s online privacy law could not be used to govern the internet in nations like India.
- Individuals in the European Union (EU) have the right to be forgotten, which allows them to request that their personal data be deleted from organisations.
- The EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which was passed by the 28-member union in 2018, makes this possible.
- The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is the world’s most stringent privacy and security law.
- Despite the fact that it was designed and passed by the European Union (EU), it imposes duties on organisations anywhere that target or collect data about EU citizens.
- The EU’s top court concluded in 2019 that the ‘right to be forgotten’ under European law does not go beyond the borders of EU member states, in a landmark decision.
Ahead of Schedule
- As proposed in the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019, the Right to be Forgotten must be entrenched statutorily in Indian jurisprudence and must extend to private individuals as well as the state.
- Individuals need the right to be forgotten in order to have more and greater control over their personal information online.
- Countries must consider how to develop the appropriate constitutive principles for the logical space of online information.
- Victims of sexually graphic videos/pictures frequently placed on social media platforms by perpetrators to frighten and harass women may have the right to be forgotten.
3. India and Vietnam Relation
#GS2-Bilateral Groupings & Agreements
- India and Vietnam recently signed a letter of intent (LOI) to engage in the sector of digital media, paving the path for the two nations’ relationship to grow even stronger.
- A letter of intent (LOI) is a document that declares two parties’ initial commitment to one other as they start into a commercial relationship. It lays forth the key terms of the potential agreement.
- Earlier in 2020, India and Vietnam’s defence ministers discussed partnership in defence industry capabilities building, training, and cooperation in UN peacekeeping missions, among other things.
In depth information
- Letter of Intent: It recognises both countries’ common goals of facilitating cooperation in the fields of post and telecommunications.
- Encourage the exchange of information and experience, and work together to undertake Human Resource Development programmes.
- Encourage postal designated operators and service providers from both countries to work together more closely.
- It will influence bilateral collaboration in the sphere of emerging technologies and challenges, such as the ‘infodemic,’ which is a concern for all countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Discussion Topics: Vietnam praised India’s efforts to establish an indigenous 5G network under the “AtmaNirbhar Bharat” initiative.
- Vietnam’s Minister of Information and Communications urged that India and Vietnam work together in the field of 5G to develop world-class technology. India has been working on 5G communications equipment that has been designed in-house.
Relationship between India and Vietnam
- While defence cooperation is one of the most important pillars of the Comprehensive Strategic Partnership that the two countries launched in 2016, the two countries’ connection dates back far further.
- As early as 1956, India opened a Consul General’s office in Hanoi.
- In 1972, Vietnam opened a diplomatic presence in the United States.
- India had stuck behind Vietnam in its opposition to US engagement in the country, even if it meant strained relations between the two countries.
- When India launched its “Look East Policy” in the early 1990s, with the explicit goal of economic integration and political collaboration with Southeast Asia and East Asia, the link was further developed.
- In 2016, an Indian Prime Minister visited Vietnam for the first time in 15 years, signalling that India is no longer hesitant to increase its influence in China’s periphery.
- Deepening connections with Vietnam will further bolster this narrative. India’s foreign policy envisions India as an anchor for peace, prosperity, and stability in Asia and Africa.
- Because India and Vietnam are physically at the centre of the expanding Indo-Pacific architecture, both would play a significant role in this strategic zone, which is rapidly becoming a focal point for great powers’ battle for dominance and influence.
- The strategic collaboration under the wide India-Vietnam cooperation framework would be essential in realising India’s ‘Act East’ Policy vision, which aims to enhance mutually beneficial engagement and ensure inclusive growth for all in the area.
- Strengthening links with Vietnam would eventually contribute to the realisation of India’s SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region) agenda, which the Indian Prime Minister has praised.
- In the areas of blue economy and maritime security, India and Vietnam may both gain from each other.
4. Kalibari Temple
#GS1-Art and Culture
- The restored Ramna Kali temple in Ramna was recently inaugurated by the President.
In depth information
The Temple’s Background
- It is a Hindu temple in Dhaka, Bangladesh’s capital, where the Suhrawardy Udyan (the former Ramna Race Course) can be found.
- Pakistani forces demolished the shrine during Operation Searchlight in March 1971, a horrific operation that resulted in genocide and the Bangladesh Liberation War.
- The temple, which is devoted to Goddess Kali, is thought to have been constructed during the Mughal period.
- After the Dhakeshwari Temple, it is Bangladesh’s second-oldest Hindu temple.
An Overview of the Past:
- The area known as Ramna (‘lawn’ in Persian) has a long history dating back to the early 1600s, when it was populated by Mughal senior officials.
- A Mughal garden, vast green spaces, and garden cottages were all present. The “jungle of Ramna” was cleared and a race course and boulevard were erected for the pleasure of the Raj elite after Dhaka came under British rule in 1858.
5. Tamil Nadu makes it mandatory to stand while state song is being played
#GS2:State policies and issues
- Tamil Thai Vaazhthu, a prayer song chanted in appreciation of Mother Tamil, has been designated as the State Song by the Tamil Nadu government.
- A Government Order (GO) was issued directing that everyone present during the singing of the song, with the exception of differently abled people, stand.
In depth information
What exactly is the problem now?
- “There is no statutory or executive order mandating the attendees to stand up while Tamil Thai Vaazhthu is performed,” the Madurai Bench of the Madras High Court said (Kan. Ilango v. State case) less than two weeks ago.
What precedent does the Supreme Court have in this area?
- The High Court cited the case of Bijoe Emmanuel vs. State of Kerala (1986), in which the Supreme Court ordered three Jehovah’s Witness children who had been dismissed from school for refusing to sing the national anthem to be readmitted to school. The Supreme Court pointed out that there is no legal requirement for anyone to sing the National Anthem.
- While the Supreme Court had ruled that all cinema halls play the national anthem before the film and that all present stand, it had modified the initial directives and made it “voluntary and not necessary” in Shyam Narayan Chouksey v. Union of India (2017).
The High Court has raised the following issues:
- While “it is true that when Tamil Thai Vaazhthu is performed, members of the audience traditionally stand up,” the question is whether this is the sole way to show respect.
- It’s hypocritical to claim that there can only be one method to demonstrate respect when we promote variety and diversity.
- Also, it would be “false respect” if people only respected something because of the law, and that legislation was designed only for that one person.
Concerns related to:
- Patriotic “vigilantes” may chastise those who do not take a stand.
- The Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act of 1971 does not include such a prohibition.
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