Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

Sarat Chandra IAS Academy -UPSC Civils Daily Current Affairs 29th November – 2021

CURRENT AFFAIRS 29-11-2021

                                                                                                  

 

 

Topics

  • The President on Productivity in Parliament
  • National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
  • The Integrated Command and Control Centres
  • Omicron- new variant of concern
  • Russia- Tundra Satellite System

 

 

 

 

1. The President on Productivity in Parliament

#GS2- Governance

Context

  • Members of Parliament (MPs), whether from the ruling party or the opposition, are defenders of Parliament’s dignity, according to the President, and competition should not be confused with rivalry.

In depth information

  • The President was speaking at an event in Parliament’s Central Hall to commemorate Constitution Day.
  • Despite their differences, the Government and the Opposition are expected to continue to work together in the best interests of the population.
  • Our forefathers in the Constitution foresaw this, and it is also vital for nation-building.

India’s Parliament

  • It is India’s top legislative body. The Indian Parliament is made up of the President and two Houses: the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of People) (House of the People).
  • The President can convene and prorogue either House of Parliament, as well as dissolve the Lok Sabha.

Parliamentary Productivity

According to records kept by PRS Legislative Research,

  • In terms of production, the Lok Sabha’s Winter Sessions of 2013 and 2016 were the second worst.
  • The Rajya Sabha’s Budget Session of 2019, the 16th Lok Sabha’s final session, was the second-worst in terms of productivity.
  • The Lok Sabha’s productivity increased by 21% during the 2018 Budget Session. The Session was utterly paralysed in the second half.
  • During the monsoon session of 2021, the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha were both 28 percent and 22 percent productive, respectively.

Low Productivity Causes

  • A day-long conference on legislative discipline and etiquette was held in the Central Hall of Parliament in 2001.

There are four reasons for such disruptions, according to all of the leaders:

  • MPs are dissatisfied due to a lack of time to vent their grievances.
  • Concerns over various bills, such as the Pegasus issue, are examples of generating disruptions.
  • The government’s lack of responsiveness and the Treasury benches’ retaliatory approach.
  • Political parties do not follow legislative rules and do not hold their members accountable.
  • The legislature’s rules do not provide for fast action against disruptive MPs.

Concerns about the parliament’s operation

  • Parliament’s working hours are shrinking: Parliament’s working hours are shrinking by the day.
  • Parliamentary Sessions are Routinely Adjourned: Parliamentary sessions are frequently adjourned in recent years. This obstructs Parliament’s job.
  • Using the Money Bill route: Despite the fact that they did not match this category, several important pieces of legislation have been enacted as Money Bills.
  • When a contentious subject arises, the government dithers in debating it, resulting in Opposition MPs breaking the conduct rules and disrupting Parliamentary procedures.
  • Bills received less examination because they were passed in the same session in which they were introduced.
  • Lack of Parliamentary debate: In the last monsoon session, 18 bills were passed without debate in the Lok Sabha, out of a total of 20.
  • Parliamentary debate is a symbol of a representative sort of democracy in action, in the sense that it allows citizens to actively question the government on issues of governance.

Next Steps

  • Code of Behavior: To prevent disturbance in Parliament, MPs and MLAs must adhere to a stringent code of conduct.
  • These concepts aren’t new. The Lok Sabha, for example, has had a simple code of conduct for its members since 1952. In 1989, these guidelines were updated in response to newer forms of protest.
  • MPs who break such codes and hinder the House’s business should be suspended by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
  • Increasing the Number of Working Days: The 2001 conference recommended that Parliament’s working days be increased. It was decided that Parliament shall meet every year for 110 days and state legislative assemblies for 90 days.
  • In the United Kingdom, where Parliament sits for nearly 100 days a year, opposition parties are given 20 days to set the agenda for debate. Opposition days are a comparable notion in Canada.
  • Democratic Participation: Not all disturbances in the House of Commons are ineffective. As a result, the current government must be more democratic and enable the opposition to express themselves freely.
  • Individual Capacity Proposals:
  • In 2019, the Deputy Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha proposed developing a ‘Parliament Disruption Index’ to track interruptions in Parliament and state legislatures.
  • Some members of the Lok Sabha proposed that members who cause disruption and rush to the Well of the House be automatically suspended.
  • However, the suggestions are still in their infancy.
  • Productivity Meter: On a weekly basis, the overall productivity of the session can be examined and shared to the public.
  • For this, a “Productivity Meter” may be established, which would take into account the amount of hours wasted due to disturbances and adjournments, and track the productivity of both Houses’ day-to-day operations.

Conclusion

  • The discourse that democracy fosters and sustains is the yardstick by which it is assessed. The solution to avoid disruption of Parliament’s activities is to strengthen it.
  • There should be a deepening of its role as the forum for deliberation on critical national issues.

 

2. National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

#GS2- Poverty & Hunger

Context

  • Niti Aayog has released India’s first-ever National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).

In depth information

Important Findings

  • Bihar has the biggest proportion of multi dimensionally impoverished people among the states, followed by Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Kerala, Goa, and Sikkim have the lowest rates of multidimensional poverty in the country.
  • This baseline report for the national MPI measure is based on the National Family Health Survey’s reference period of 2015-16. (NFHS).
  • The poorest Union Territories (UTs) in India are Dadra and Nagar Haveli (27.36 percent), Jammu & Kashmir (12.58 percent), Daman & Diu (6.82 percent), and Chandigarh (5.97 percent).
  • Puducherry has the lowest proportion of poor among the Union Territories, at 1.72 percent, followed by Lakshadweep at 1.82 percent, Andaman and Nicobar Islands at 4.30 percent, and Delhi at 4.79 percent.
  • Global Rank: India is ranked 66th out of 109 countries in the Global MPI 2021.
  • The National Multidimensional Poverty Index is a measure of poverty in the United States (MPI)
  • This baseline report of India’s first-ever national MPI measure is based on the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)- 4 reference period of 2015-16.
  • It is based on the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) approach, which is widely regarded and reliable (UNDP).
  • It captures the many and concurrent deprivations that households confront.

The purpose of the National MPI as a metric is to:

  • At the national level, a more high-level view of poverty is needed.
  • Complements monetary poverty reduction efforts
  • Provides data to help policymakers make decisions.
  • The MPI is based on a profile of overlapping or “joint” deprivations experienced by each person or household.
  • Encourages people to leave no one behind and to reach the people who are the furthest behind first.

Credible Methodology:

  • The Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), which publishes the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index, created the widely recognised and robust methodology used by India’s national MPI measure.

There are three macro dimensions: The dimensions, markers, and weights of the National MPI are listed below.

Significance

  • Important Public Policy Instrument: The National MPI of India’s development will establish a public policy tool that monitors multidimensional poverty, informs evidence-based and targeted initiatives, and ensures that no one is left behind.
  • Adjugdes Multi-sectoral Interventions’ Success: It sheds light on the degree to which multi-sectoral interventions have succeeded in addressing various aspects of poverty.
  • Includes Multiple Impoverishments: Importantly, as a measure of multidimensional poverty, it captures households’ various and concurrent deprivations.
  • Detailed Examination at All Levels: The headcount ratio and intensity of multidimensional poverty are examined in depth at the national, state/UT, and district levels in this research.

Conclusion

  • The national MPI of India was designed to be a comprehensive tool for accelerating goal-oriented activity to measure multidimensional poverty and guide its methodical eradication.
  • The index’s dimensions have been shown to aid in the identification and implementation of focused policy actions.

 

3. The Integrated Command and Control Centres

#GS2-Government Policies, Welfare Schemes

Context

  • The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has started finalising its proposal to provide Integrated Command and Control Centres (ICCCs) as a service to states and smaller cities.

In depth information

  • Setting up ICCCs for each city is a critical step in the Smart Cities project, which aspires to build 100 citizen-friendly and self-sustaining urban settlements.
  • These ICCCs were created to let authorities to track the status of various facilities in real time.
  • Initially, the system was intended to control and monitor water and electricity supply, sanitation, traffic flow, integrated building management, city connectivity, and Internet infrastructure.
  • However, these centres will now monitor a variety of additional parameters and will be linked to the Ministry of Home Affairs’ CCTNS (Crime and Criminal Tracking Networks and Systems) network (MHA).
  • The MoHUA plans to finalise the ICCC model and pilot it in six states: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu.
  • These ICCCs have been operationalized in 69 cities so far, with Agartala, Indore, and Vadodara ranked first, second, and third, respectively, for a long-term business strategy of these centres.

The Smart City Mission

  • It is an innovative effort under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs that aims to boost economic growth and improve people’s quality of life by enabling local development and leveraging technology to achieve smart outcomes for citizens.
  • It’s a scheme that’s backed by the government.
  • Goal: To encourage cities that provide basic infrastructure and provide a decent quality of life for their residents, as well as a clean and sustainable environment and Smart Solutions implementation.
  • Focus: Create a replicable model that will operate as a lighthouse for other aspiring cities, with a focus on sustainable and equitable development and a focus on compact regions.
  • Strategy: A pan-city programme involving the implementation of at least one Smart Solution across the city.

With the help of these three models, develop areas one by one:

  1. Retrofitting
  2. Redevelopment
  3. Greenfield

 

4.Omicron- new variant of concern

#GS2- Health

Context

  • The World Health Organization designated the newly identified B.1.1.529 COVID-19 strain as a variation of concern and dubbed it Omicron based on evidence indicating a negative change in COVID-19 epidemiology.

In depth information

About B.1.1.529 strain

On November 24, the WHO received the first report of the variation from South Africa.

  • In South Africa, the epidemiological situation has been marked by three different peaks in reported cases, the most recent of which was dominated by the Delta strain.
  • Infections have risen sharply in recent weeks, corresponding with the discovery of the B.1.1.529 strain.
  • A specimen collected on November 9, 2021, was the first reported verified B.1.1.529 infection.
  • There are numerous mutations in this variation, some of which are problematic.
  • In comparison to other VOCs, preliminary research suggests that this variation has a higher risk of reinfection.
  • This variation is still detected by current SARS-CoV-2 PCR diagnostics.

 

5. Russia- Tundra Satellite System

#GS3-Defence Technology

Context

  • Russia just launched a military satellite into orbit with great success. The satellite is thought to be a Tundra Satellite, which is part of Russia’s Kupol or dome early warning anti-missile system.

In depth information

  • Between 2015 and 2020, Russia established the Tundra satellite system, which is a constellation of Missile Early Warning Satellites.
  • It is equipped with a secure emergency communications payload that will be used in the event of a nuclear attack.
  • It is a constellation of satellites that will replace the Oko-1 system’s early warning satellites as the next generation of Russian early warning satellites.
  • The final Oko (Eye) satellite (missile defence early warning programme) is said to have stopped functioning in mid-2014, leaving Russia to rely on ground-based missile detection systems.
  • They’ll be part of the EKS, or Unified Space System (USS—also known as Kupol or dome), which will contain numerous geostationary satellites.
  • Kupol, which was unveiled in 2019, is supposed to detect ballistic missile launches and track them to their target, however their exact configuration is unknown.

India and Anti-Missile Defense Systems:

S-400 TRIUMF:

  • India has the S-400 TRIUMF, which is capable of countering all three threats (rockets, missiles and cruise missiles). They do, however, have a significantly greater range.
  • To fend off threats, it possesses a significantly larger air defence bubble.
  • It is a Russian-designed mobile surface-to-air missile system (SAM).

Range and Effectiveness:

  • The system has a range of 400 kilometres and can engage all forms of airborne targets at a height of up to 30 kilometres.
  • The device can track 100 targets in the air and engage six of them at once.
  • Prithvi Air Defence and Advance Air Defence are two types of air defence systems.
  • The Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile for high altitude interception and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) Missile for lower altitude interception make up a two-tiered system.
  • It has a range of 5,000 kilometres and can intercept any incoming missile. An overlapping network of early warning and tracking radars, as well as command and control posts, are also part of the system.

Ashwin Advanced Air Defence Interceptor Missile:

About:

  • It’s also an Advanced Air Defence (AAD) interceptor missile developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) (DRDO).
  • It’s a more improved variant of the supersonic low-altitude ballistic interceptor missile.
  • The missile also features a transportable launcher, a secure data link for interception, independent tracking and homing capabilities, and advanced radars.

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