Sarat Chandra IAS Academy




Opportunity Index 2021

Context: Recently, LinkedIn Opportunity Index 2021 was released

Key Findings of the report

  • As per the index, the Covid-19 pandemic has hit the working women in India the most as compared to working women in other countries.
  • The index maintains that, working women in India continue to battle strongest gender bias with respect to equal pay and opportunity across the Asia Pacific countries.
  • As per the report; about one in five women, which accounts for 22% of the working women in India, is unhappy with the opportunities to advance in their career. These women said that, their companies are favourably biased towards men.
  • Further, 85% of working women claim that they have missed out on raise, promotion, or work offer in India. While in Asia-Pacific region this figure stands at 60%.
  • The report also highlights that, 37% of working women in India get fewer opportunities than men.
  • Further, 37% of the women are paid less than men.
  • LinkedIn’s findings further states that, women now seek the employers who treat them as equal. On the other hand, 56% of the women look for recognition at work for their work. Other women wants that they get work as per their skills.

Concerns for Women in India

  • lack of required professional skills
  • lack of guidance through networks & connections are the barriers that hinders the career development for working women
  • lack of timely care to pregnant women — high maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate
  • dined education
  • early marriage
  • sexual harassment at the workplace
  • glass ceiling
  • domestic violence

Mining in Aravali hills

Context:The Haryana government has appealed to the Supreme Court to permit it to resume mining in the Aravali Hills on the grounds that the pandemic had ground the State‟s economy to a halt.

Mining in Aravali Hills

  • In February 2019, the Haryana legislative assembly amended the Punjab Land Preservation Act (PLPA) which was effectuated in 1900 for “conservation of sub-soil water” and “prevention of erosion,” by giving the state the power to “regulate, restrict or prohibit” certain activities, including “clearing or breaking up” of land.
  • This amendment also removed several hills of the Aravalli range from the category of “restricted area,” making around 63,000 acres of the Aravalli range available for construction and mining activities.
  • By the same amendment, the Haryana government also attempted to legitimise several illegal constructions in the range.
  • However, the Supreme Court, through an order, promptly nullified the amendment.

Effects of Mining

On Environment

  • Air: Surface mines may produce dust from blasting operations and haul roads. Many coalmines release methane, a greenhouse gas. Smelter operations with insufficient safeguards in place have the potential to pollute the air with heavy metals, sulphur dioxide, and other pollutants.
  • Water: The mining sector uses large quantities of water, though some mines do reuse much of their water intake. Mining throws sulphide-containing minerals into the air, where they oxidise and react with water to form sulphuric acid. This, together with various trace elements impacts groundwater, both from the surface and underground mines.
  • Land: The movement of rocks due to mining activities and overburden (material overlying amineral deposit that must be removed before mining) in the case of surface mines impacts land severely. These impacts may be temporary where the mining company returns the rock and overburden to the pit from which they were extracted. Many copper mines, for example, extract ore that contains less than 1% copper.
  • Health & safety: Mining operations range from extremely hazardous to being as safe or as dangerous as any other large scale industrial activity. Underground mining is generally more hazardous than surface mining because of poorer ventilation and visibility and the danger of rockfalls. The greatest health risks arise from dust, which may lead to respiratory problems, and from exposure to radiation (where applicable).

Administrative issues

  • Arbitrary allocation of coal mines leads to the long litigation and eventually cancellation of allocations and charges of corruption in block allocations.
  • Delay in environmental clearances due to bureaucratic hindrances


  • Large scale displacement of local people leads to grievances and improper rehabilitation measures, thereby, leading to people’s alienation and develop distrust over the government machinery.
  • Its not just loss of land it’s a loss of culture, way of life

Revision of National Food security Act 2013

Context:Recently, Niti Aayog proposed revision in National Food security Act 2013

Key recommendations

  • reducing the rural and urban coverage under the National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013, to 60% and 40%, respectively.
  • revision of beneficiaries as per the latest population which is currently being done through Census- 2011.

Significance of proposal

  • Down warding national coverage will help government to spend in other areas

National Food Security Act 2013


  • The Act provides for food and nutritional security in the human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to an adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices for people to live a life with dignity and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.


  • Priority Households to be covered under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), according to guidelines by the State government.
  • Households covered under existing Antyodaya Anna Yojana.

Indian Air Force in Exercise Desert Flag for the first time

Context:The Indian Air Force is participating for the first time in Exercise Desert Flag along with air forces of United Arab Emirates, United States of America, France, Saudi Arabia, South Korea and Bahrain.

Significance of Participation

  • Exercising and interaction with the participating nations in a dynamic and realistic warfare environment will also contribute to strengthen international relations.

Exercise Desert Flag

  • Aim: The aim of the exercise is to provide operational exposure to the participating forces while training them to undertake simulated air combat operations in a controlled environment.
  • It is an annual multi-national large force employment warfare exercise hosted by the United Arab Emirates Air Force.
  • Exercise Desert Flag VI is scheduled from 03 Mar 21 to 27 Mar 21 at Al-Dhafra airbase, UAE.
  • The IAF is participating with six Su-30 MKI, two C-17 and one IL-78 tanker aircraft.



Context:Recently, PM inaugurated the ‘Maritime India Summit 2021’.

Highlights of the summit:

  • He informed that capacity of major ports have increased from 870 million tonnes in 2014 to 1550 million tonnes now.
  • Mega ports with world class infrastructure are being developed in Vadhavan, Paradip and Deendayal Port in Kandla.
  • India aims to operationalise 23 waterways by 2030.
  • India has as many as 189 lighthouses across its vast coastline and has drawn up a programme for developing tourism in the land adjacent to 78 lighthouses.
  • Steps are also being taken to introduce urban water transport systems in key states and cities such as Kochi, Mumbai, Gujarat and Goa.
  • To encourage domestic shipbuilding, approval has been given to the Shipbuilding Financial Assistance Policy for Indian Shipyards.
  • The Ministry of Port Shipping and Waterways has created a list of 400 investable These projects have an investment potential of $ 31 billion or Rs 2.25 lakh crores.
  • The Maritime India Vision 2030 outlines the priorities of the Government.
  • Organized by:Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways
  • Denmark is the partner country for the three-day summit.
  • It will work to propel India to the forefront of the Global Maritime Sector.

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