DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS ANALYSIS
22 APRIL 2022
|S. No.||Topic Name||Prelims/Mains|
|1.||DETAILS OF VETO POWER OF UNSC PERMANENT MEMBERS||Prelims & Mains|
|2.||INTERNATIONAL DAY FOR MONUMENTS AND SITES||Prelims & Mains|
|3.||DETAILS OF AURORA||Prelims & Mains|
|4.||ABOUT WORLD HAEMOPHILIA DAY||Prelims Specific Topic|
|5.||DETAILS OF THE SOLOMAN ISLANDS||Prelims Specific Topic|
1 – DETAILS OF VETO POWER OF UNSC PERMANENT MEMBERS:
- Liechtenstein will call the United Nations General Assembly to discuss a draught resolution backed by the United States, which would compel the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (Russia, China, the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) to justify their use of the veto.
- There has long been a desire for a strategy to guarantee that permanent members of the UNSC use their veto powers less frequently.
- Following its recent invasion of Ukraine, Russia has recently gained power and support from a number of key players.
- Moscow’s veto power has stymied action in the UN Security Council, which is mandated by the UN Charter to engage in such disputes as a guarantor of international peace.
A prerequisite for:
- Several countries have demanded UNSC reforms, claiming that the body’s “limited representation” has stopped it from carrying out its responsibilities in safeguarding global peace and security.
- In proposals to change the Security Council, the veto power is frequently mentioned. The issue of UNSC expansion should not be held hostage by the veto power debate, India has stressed repeatedly.
What does it mean to have veto power?
- Any “substantive” resolution can be vetoed (blocked) by the UN Security Council’s five permanent members.
- The veto authority is established by Article 27 of the United Nations Charter.
When does the veto power come into play, and how does it work?
- Each member of the United Nations Security Council has one vote.
- The UNSC must make procedural decisions with a majority vote of nine members.
- All other UNSC decisions are made by a nine-member affirmative vote, including the permanent members’ concurring votes.
- This means that any permanent member who votes against a drafted resolution prevents it from being enacted.
- A permanent member voting no or not voting does not preclude a resolution from passing.
The following are some of the arguments for and against the veto:
- Supporters of veto power argue that it protects against “snap” military operations while also promoting international stability.
- Some believe, however, that the veto is the UN’s most undemocratic characteristic, as well as the principal source of inaction on war crimes and crimes against humanity, because it effectively prevents the UN from acting against permanent members and their supporters.
- According to Amnesty International, the five permanent members have “advanced their political self-interest or geopolitical interest over the goal of protecting civilians” by using their veto.
The Case for India’s Permanent Membership in the Security Council of the United Nations:
- India is a member of the United Nations since its inception.
- Above all, India has nearly double the number of peacekeepers on the ground as the other P5 nations.
- India is both the world’s most populous country and the world’s largest democracy.
- In May 1998, India was designated as a Nuclear Weapons State (NWS), making it a natural candidate for membership among the other permanent members who are all Nuclear Weapon States.
- India is the undisputed leader of Third World countries, as seen by its leadership role in the Non-Aligned Movement and the G-77 grouping.
2 – INTERNATIONAL DAY FOR MONUMENTS AND SITES:
- The United Nations declares April 18 as International Monuments and Sites Day every year.
- In some countries, the day is also known as World Heritage Day.
- Around the world, the International Council on Monuments and Sites supports the day (ICOMOS).
- The theme for World Heritage Day 2022 is “Heritage and Climate.”
What is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, exactly?
- These locations have been formally recognised by the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, also known as UNESCO. According to UNESCO, World Heritage sites are significant for humanity and have cultural and physical significance.
- The list is maintained by the international World Heritage Programme, which is administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, which is composed of 21 UNESCO member countries elected by the General Assembly.
- Each World Heritage Site stays part of the legal territory of the state in which it is located, and UNESCO thinks that maintaining each site is in the worldwide community’s best interests.
- In order to be chosen as a World Heritage Site, it must be an existing landmark that is identifiable in some way as a geographically and historically recognisable area with outstanding cultural or physical significance.
The following are some of India’s heritage sites:
- In India, there are 40 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
- The Harappan city of Dholavira in Gujarat has been named India’s 40th world heritage site.
- Ramappa Temple in Telangana was India’s 39th World Heritage Site.
- Khangchendzonga National Park in Sikkim has been designated as India’s first and only “Mixed World Heritage Site.”
3 – DETAILS OF AURORA
- A beautiful aurora glow was recently witnessed above Iceland as a ‘dead’ sunspot awoke.
What is Aurora, exactly?
- An aurora is a natural light show that occurs most frequently at high latitudes (Arctic and Antarctic). Another name for it is polar light.
- The two types are the aurora borealis and aurora australis, also known as the northern and southern lights, respectively.
What are the places where they happen:
- They are most frequent at high northern and southern latitudes, scarce near the equator, and less common in the middle latitudes.
- The most typical colour of auroras is a milky greenish hue, but they can also be red, blue, violet, pink, or white. These colours appear in a variety of shapes that change on a regular basis.
The following is the science behind their occurrence:
- Auroras are a visually spectacular indicator that our planet is connected to the Sun electrically. These light shows are triggered by the Sun’s energy, which is fed by electrically charged particles trapped in Earth’s magnetic field.
- The aurora is caused by collisions between fast-moving electrons from space and oxygen and nitrogen in Earth’s upper atmosphere.
- Electrons from the Earth’s magnetosphere, a region of space influenced by the planet’s magnetic field, transfer their energy to oxygen and nitrogen atoms and molecules, causing them to become “excited.”
- Photons, or little bursts of energy in the form of light, are produced when gases return to their original condition.
- When a large number of electrons from the magnetosphere bombard the atmosphere, the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere can produce enough light for the eye to perceive, resulting in beautiful auroral displays.
Where do they originate:
- They can be found at altitudes ranging from 100 to 400 kilometres.
Why do auroras come in a variety of colours and shapes?
- The colour of the aurora is influenced by whether gas — oxygen or nitrogen — is driven by electrons and how excited it becomes. The colour is also controlled by the speed at which electrons travel or the amount of energy they possess when they collide.
- Low-energy electrons cause red light, but high-energy electrons cause green light (the aurora’s most well-known colour). Nitrogen, in general, emits a blue light.
- Combining these colours yields purples, pinks, and whites. Oxygen and nitrogen emit ultraviolet light, which can be detected by advanced satellite cameras.
- Auroras have an impact on communication, radio, and energy lines.
- It’s also worth remembering that the Sun’s energy, manifested as solar wind, is at the centre of it all.
4 – ABOUT WORLD HAEMOPHILIA DAY:
Prelims Specific Topic
- World Haemophilia Day is commemorated every year on April 17th to increase awareness of haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders.
- On this day, the World Federation of Haemophilia honours Frank Schnabel, the organization’s founder (WHF).
- This year’s theme is “Access for All: Partnership, Policy, and Progress” (2022). Getting active with your government and incorporating inherited bleeding diseases into national policy.” Haemophilia is a blood clotting disorder that causes severe bleeding from even minor traumas.
5 – DETAILS OF THE SOLOMAN ISLANDS:
Prelims Specific Topic
- China has announced the signing of a security agreement with the Solomon Islands, a first-of-its-kind agreement that could pave the way for future Chinese security agreements.
- With 990 islands, the Solomon Islands are a Melanesia country east of Papua New Guinea. The capital is Honiara, which is located on the island of Guadalcanal.
- The Solomon Islands have been inhabited by Melanesian people for at least 30,000 years.
- A double chain of volcanic islands and coral atolls make up Melanesia.
UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 22nd April 2022
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