Sarat Chandra IAS Academy

Important Terms in 8th October -2020 News


GI tag:

  • A GI is primarily an agricultural, natural or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory.
  • Typically, such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness, which is essentially attributable to the place of its origin.
  • Once the GI protection is granted, no other producer can misuse the name to market similar products. It also provides comfort to customers about the authenticity of that product.


Black holes:

  • A black hole is formed when stars collapse and can be defined as a space in the universe with an escape velocity so strong that even light cannot escape it.
  • Escape velocity is the speed at which an object must travel to override a planet or an object’s gravitational force.

Main features of black holes:

  • Since light cannot get out, black holes are invisible and can only be tracked with the help of a space telescope or other special tools.
  • Light cannot escape from black holes because the gravity inside a black hole is very strong as a result of a lot of matter being squeezed into a small space.


Purchasing Manager’s Index (PMI):

  • PMI is an indicator of business activity- in the manufacturing and services sectors.
  • It is a survey-based measure that asks the respondents about changes in their perception about key business variables as compared with the previous month.

The PMI is a number from 0 to 100:

  1. PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared to the previous month;
  2. PMI under 50 represents a contraction, and
  3. A reading at 50 indicates no change.



  • The Centre for Augmenting WAR with COVID-19 Health Crisis (CAWACH) is an initiative by the National Science & Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board (NSTEDB), Department of Science and Technology (DST).
  • CAWACH supports innovations in the areas of diagnostics, devices, informatics including bio-informatics & information management systems, any intervention for the control of COVID-19 and/or startup ideas to address/mitigate various challenges faced by country/society due to the severe impact of COVID-19.
  • It offers funding to the tune of Rs. 50 lakhs to Rs. 200 lakhs to selected startups.

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