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UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 19th May 2022

19th May 2022 CURRENT AFFAIRS

 

1) Ban of wheat exports in India

S- III  Transport and marketing of agricultural produce

2) The content and scope of Article 142

GS-II Polity & Governance

3) Kuruva Paral Project

GS – III Environment & Ecology

4) P-8I Aircraft

GS – III Science & Technology

 

 

Ban of wheat exports in India

(gs III: Transport and marketing of agricultural produce )

 

Context:

The Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) issued a notification to ban wheat exports

 Wheat:
  • Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in India after rice(successful under green revolution )
  • It is a rabi crop
  • Temperature :

10-15°C (Sowing time) and 21-26°C (Ripening & Harvesting) with bright sunlight

  • Rain fall :

75 to 100 cm

  • Top wheat producers :

Uttar Pradesh and  Punjab

Reasons for ban :

Production of wheat decreased this year due to scorching heat wave (estimating 105 MT from 111.32 MT by june)

To check the whole sale inflation and retail inflation of wheat and wheat flour which have risen by an average 10-14  per cent in the last one year

According to press trust of India, only 18 MT of wheat were procured in this marketing year, which is much less than the 36.7 MT in the year ago period.(National food security act )

The decision is aimed at controlling the— and meet the food grain requirement of neighbouring and vulnerable countries.

 

International view point

Massive market fluctuation and food shortage have been triggered globally due to the break-in grain supplies after the crisis between Ukraine and Russia.

They both accounted to produce almost a third of the world`s wheat and barley and half of its sunflower oil.

A number of low-income societies are today confronted with the twin challenges of rising costs and difficulty in access to food grains.  It may leads to food insecurity, malnutrition, mass hunger and famine.

According to the international community India, who have adequate stocks but following unfair trade practices. (export ban , hoarding, against to the Laissez-faire)

G7 and USA putting pressure on India to stop this

 

India’s arguments against international view

India also called out the West and cautioned that the issue of food grains should not go the way of Covid-19 vaccines

Vaccines were purchased by the rich nations in quantities excess of what they needed, leaving the poor and less developed nations scrambling to administer even the initial doses to their people.

Open markets must not become an argument to perpetuate inequity and promote discrimination

India has provided food aid in the form of thousands of metric tonnes of wheat, rice, pulses, and lentils to several countries.

Under deteriorating humanitarian situation in Afghanistan, India is donating 50,000 metric tonnes of wheat to its people.

India has continued its humanitarian support for Myanmar, including a grant of 10,000 tons of rice and wheat. India Supporting srilanka also

Indian government said that In keeping with our ethos of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam (the world is one family) and our Neighbourhood First’ policy, we will continue to assist our neighbours as well as other countries.

 

The content and scope of Article 142

(GS-II Polity & Governance)

Context:

The Supreme Court has invoked its extraordinary powers to do complete justice under Article

142 of the Constitution and ordered the release of A.G. Perarivalan in former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi assassination case.

Background of the issue:
  • Perarivalan who is 51 years old now, was given a life sentence in the case, for buying batteries used in the bomb that killed the former Prime Minister, without knowing how the batteries were going to be used.
  • And the battle to secure his release had been an ongoing tussle between the Tamil Nadu government and the Governor, since 2018.
  • The court held that the Tamil Nadu Council of Ministers’ advice on September 9, 2018 to pardon Perarivalan was binding on the Governor under Article 161 (Governor’s power of clemency) of the Constitution. The Governor had no business forwarding the pardon plea to the President after sitting on it for years together.

The content and scope of Article 142

SC stand on Article 161 in this case
  • The advice of the State Cabinet is binding on the Governor in matters relating to commutation/remission of sentences under Article 161.
  • No provision under the Constitution has been pointed out to us nor any satisfactory response tendered as to the source of the Governor’s power to refer a recommendation made by the State Cabinet to the President of India.
  • In the instant case, the Governor ought not to have sent the recommendation made by the State Cabinet to the President. Such action is contrary to the constitutional scheme
  • While delivering its judgment, the Supreme court refused to accept the Union government’s position that the President had the exclusive right to grant remission in cases under section 302 of the IPC.
Article 161
  • Under this Article “the Governor of a state shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends”.
Article 142
  • Article 142 of the Constitution of India provides a special and extraordinary power to the Supreme Court to do complete justice to the litigants who have suffered traversed illegality or injustice in the proceedings.
  • Article 142(1) states that “The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it, and any decree so passed or order so made shall be enforceable throughout the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, in such manner as the President may by order prescribe”
Why is Article 142 needed?
  • The framers of the Constitution felt that this provision is of utmost significance to those people who have to suffer due to the delay in getting their necessary reliefs due to the disadvantaged position of the judicial system.
  • According to Shri Thakur das Bhargava, natural justice is above law, and the Supreme Court will also be above law, in the sense that, it shall have full right to pass any order that it considers just. This gives almost unlimited powers to the Supreme Court.
Previous cases in which Article 142 has invoked
  • In 1989, the Supreme Court used its extraordinary powers to get the US-based Union Carbide Corporation to pay $470 million to the victims of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy.
  • In 2019 Ayodhya Ram Mandir verdict, where the top court handed over the 2.77 acres of disputed land to a trust which was to be formed by the Union government within three months, for the building of a temple.
  • Manohar Lal Sharma v. Principal Secretary– the Supreme Court can deal with exceptional circumstances interfering with the larger interest of the public in order to fabricate trust in the rule of law.
  • Laxmi Devi v. Satya Narayan– Supreme Court had ordered the accused, under Article 142, to award compensation to the victim with whom he had sexual intercourse with a promise to marry and had later retracted his promise. Also, the order made clear that the accused should not be convicted of rape.

 

Kuruva Paral Project

Context: Researchers from the Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (Kufos), have succeeded in almost developing a fishery of a local native species Kuruva Paral (Olive Barbs).

  • The project is part of the UNDP- India High Range Mountain Landscape Project which aims to enhance the reservoir fishery with native species and also help develop a sustainable livelihood for the tribespeople in the region.
  • Puntius euspilurus, a variety of ‘Paral’, was found in the Valloorkavu reach of the Mananthavady river in Wayanad.
  • The second species Systomus laticeps was reported from Thiruvalla in Pathanamthitta district. It belongs to the ‘Kuruva’ variety of fish.
  • Indiscriminate fishing and changes in habitat conditions have brought these species, especially Kuruva Paral, to the brink of extinction
  • Paral species grows up to 6.6 cm in length and is characterized by a short body and wide pectoral fins.
  • Kuruva is characterised by a long and round body.

Kuruva Paral Project

P-8I Aircraft

Context: The Defence Minister Rajnath Singh, during his visit to Mumbai, undertook a sortie on a Navy P8I maritime patrol aircraft and witnessed firsthand its longrange surveillance and antisubmarine warfare capabilities.

P-8I Aircraft

About P-8I
  • This aircraft was designed for long-range anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare (ASuW), and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions
  • The P-8 delivers highest levels of quality, reliability, and operability.
  • It is defined by a unique combination of state-of-the-art sensors, proven weapons systems, and a globally recognized platform.
  • The P-8s Indian variant is referred to as P-8I.
  • The aircraft plays a crucial role in being the eyes of the Indian Navy and carrying out critical maritime operations.
  • They provide India’s maritime warriors a significant edge in the strategically important Indian Ocean region.
  • The P-8I is not just responsible for coastal patrolling but is also used for other critical missions like search-and-rescue, anti-piracy, and supporting operations of other arms of the military.

UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 19th May 2022

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