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UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 20th April 2022

DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS ANALYSIS

20 APRIL 2022

 

 

 

 

 

No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.     ABOUT THE GAZA STRIP Prelims & Mains
2.     DETAILS OF THE UDAN SCHEME Prelims & Mains
3.     BRICS COUNTRIES Prelims & Mains
4.     ABOUT THE PENDENCY OF CASES IN SUPREME COURT Prelims Specific Topic
5.     ABOUT THE MYSTERY LIVER DISEASE Prelims Specific Topic

 

1 – ABOUT THE GAZA STRIP:

 GS II

International Relations

 Context:

  • Israel conducted attacks in Gaza after a rocket was fired into Israel from the Palestinian enclave.
  • The armed wing of Hamas has claimed responsibility for the downing of Israeli planes.
  • What is Hamas and what does it stand for:
  • Since its founding in 1987, Hamas has fought war on Israel, principally through suicide bombers and rocket attacks.
  • Its goal is to topple Israel and install a Palestinian state in its place. It also governs Gaza without the assistance of the Palestinian Authority.
  • A contract is required:
  • Since 2007, the Israeli closure on Gaza has been tightened, with most basic products still subject to harsh restrictions.
  • The Gaza Strip: What Happened:
  • The Gaza Strip is a man-made entity that originated in 1948 when around three-quarters of Palestine’s Arab residents were relocated, and in some cases expelled, as part of Israel’s creation. The majority of the refugees were spread around the region, including Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon.
  • Jordan, which assumed control of the West Bank after 1948, attracted some of the refugees. And a large number of people went to Gaza, a small seaside territory sandwiched between Egypt and what is now Israel. In Gaza, refugees now account for around 70% of the population.
  • Who is responsible for it:
  • Hamas gained control of the Gaza Strip by force in 2007. Following it, Israel imposed a complete closure on Gaza’s borders. Gaza has been categorised as a hostile entity. Of obviously, Gaza is not a country.
  • Hamas is designated a terrorist organisation by Israel and many other countries, including the United States, because of its history of attacks on civilians and other crimes.
  • Right now, the situation is:
  • Despite Israel’s withdrawal, the UN considers the West Bank to be occupied territory, and Gaza is still considered occupied territory by the UN.
  • The Palestinians want East Jerusalem to be the capital of a future Palestinian state, while Israel wants Jerusalem as its entire city.
  • Israel’s claim to the entire city is recognised by just a few countries, notably the United States.
  • Right now, here’s what’s going on:
  • Tensions between Israel and Palestinians are regularly high in East Jerusalem, Gaza, and the West Bank.
  • Hamas, a Palestinian militant group that has attacked Israel multiple times, is in charge of Gaza. To prevent weapons from reaching Hamas, Israel and Egypt maintain tight control over Gaza’s borders.
  • Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank fear that Israeli restrictions and actions are harming them. Israel argues it is only acting in self-defense in the face of Palestinian terrorism.
  • Things have gotten worse since the start of the holy Muslim month of Ramadan in mid-April 2021, with nightly confrontations between police and Palestinians.
  • The threat of expulsion for certain Palestinian families living in East Jerusalem has caused even more indignation.

  

2 – DETAILS OF THE UDAN SCHEME:

 GS II

 Government Policies and Interventions

 Context:

  • The UDAN scheme, the Ministry of Civil Aviation’s principal endeavour to promote air connectivity in non-metro tier II and III cities, has been granted the Prime Minister’s Award for Excellence in Public Administration 2020.
  • The UdeDesh Ka Aam Nagrik (UDAN) Scheme entails the following:
  • The project, which began in 2016, aims to increase connection to the country’s rural and regional areas while simultaneously lowering the cost of air travel.
  • It’s an important part of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s National Civil Aviation Policy, which he unveiled in June 2017.
  • By revitalising abandoned and underused airports, the regional connectivity scheme (RCS) attempts to improve air connection to tier-2 and tier-3 cities.
  • The scheme subsidises nearly half of the seats on Udan flights, and participating carriers are allocated a certain amount of viability gap money (VGF), which is split between the Centre and the affected states.
  • The federal and state governments will both back the effort.
  • The initiative will last for ten years, with the option to extend it if necessary.
  • The following are the primary characteristics of the scheme:
  • Airlines are awarded routes through a competitive bidding process and must charge a minimum of 2,500 dollars per hour of travel.
  • A minimum of 50% of a plane’s total seats must be available at a lesser price.
  • Airlines receive a three-year subsidy from the government to enable them to offer low-cost flights.
  • The government set budgeted $4,500 crore in the first three years for the repair of 50 airports.
  • UDAN 4.0 is the latest version of the software.
  • The fourth cycle of UDAN was inaugurated in December 2019, with a focus on North-Eastern Regions, Hilly States, and Islands.
  • The Scheme gives VGF (Viability Gap Funding) priority to airports that have already been developed by the Airports Authority of India (AAI).
  • In UDAN 4, the operation of helicopters and seaplanes is also covered.
  • What challenges did you have to overcome:
  • The financial health of many smaller, regional carriers has impeded the concept.
  • Many players just have one or two planes, which are often ignored. New planes are extremely expensive for these smaller players.

 

3 – BRICS COUNTRIES:

 GS II

International Relations

 Context:

  • India has agreed to take part in a virtual summit of leaders from Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa scheduled at the end of June.
  • India hosted the BRICS meeting last year, which was also held online and attended by the five leaders.
  • This is China’s first meeting since the PLA’s transgressions ignited tensions at the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in April 2020.
  • What are the countries that make up the BRICS:
  • Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa make up the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) group, which includes the five largest emerging economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
  • It is home to 42% of the global population, 23% of GDP, 30% of land, and 18% of global trade.
  • The abbreviation BRIC was coined by Goldman Sachs economist ‘Jim O’Neill’ in 2001 to signify the developing powers that, along with the United States, will be the world’s five largest economies in the twenty-first century.
  • BRIC countries began communicating in 2006, and it has continued at yearly summits of state and government executives since 2009.
  • With the accession of South Africa to the BRICS in 2011, the group’s ultimate composition included an African country.

 

4 – ABOUT THE PENDENCY OF CASES IN SUPREME COURT:

GS II

 Indian Judiciary

 Context:

  • The Supreme Court is likely to have a considerable number of vacancies in 2022, with many current judges leaving this year.
  • The problem at hand is:
  • The retirements come as the court tries to regain its feet following a series of unusually severe epidemic outbreaks. A huge number of cases are still in the works.
  • With up to 30 million pending cases, India’s court system has the world’s largest backlog of litigation.
  • The inefficiency of the legal system is demonstrated by the fact that this number continues to climb.
  • Furthermore, due to the backlog, the bulk of inmates in India’s prisons are detainees awaiting trial.
  • A case is currently pending in the Supreme Court:
  • As of April 1, 2022, there are 70,362 cases pending before the Supreme Court, according to data from the court.
  • Almost 19 percent of them are not ready to be taken before a court for a judicial hearing because they have not fulfilled the necessary preparations.
  • There are 52,110 cases awaiting admission and 18,522 cases awaiting regular hearings.
  • There are 422 Constitution Bench cases in total (including main and related topics).
  • The Supreme Court has only recently began full physical hearings after two years of virtual sessions.
  • To reduce detention, the government has taken a variety of steps:
  • Adoption of the “National Litigation Policy 2010” to help the government become a more effective and accountable litigant.
  • All states adopted their own state lawsuit policies in response to the National Litigation Policy of 2010.
  • In 2015, LIMBS (Legal Information Management and Briefing System) was created with the objective of keeping track of cases in which the government is involved.
  • Instead of being sent to overcrowded prisons, the Supreme Court had authorised the government to allocate convicts condemned to 6 months or a year in prison to social service work.
  • The pressing need of the hour:
  • The national litigation policy has to be revised.
  • Alternative dispute resolution procedures should be encouraged to encourage mediation.
  • Coordination between the government and the courts.
  • The judicial competency of lower courts should be increased to relieve the load on higher courts.
  • Increase the funds allocated to the judiciary.
  • Case management and automation in the court system should be improved.
  • For each subject, make a bench.
  • Internal conflict resolution approaches that work.
  • Shorter and more concentrated judgements should be drafted by judges.

 

5 – ABOUT THE MYSTERY LIVER DISEASE:

Prelims Specific Topic

Cases of this odd liver condition have been documented in Spain, Denmark, and the Netherlands, in addition to the United States and the United Kingdom.

  • Authorities are now frantically attempting to determine what is causing the inexplicable acute sickness.
  • Causes:
  • There has been no tangible evidence discovered so far.
  • According to Scottish scientists, the predominant theory is that the liver damage is caused by an adenovirus. Viruses that have a wide range of symptoms and are usually linked to respiratory and ocular disorders.
  • It’s also possible that it’s the result of a Covid-19 infection, or that it’s a new, unidentified strain.
  • Researchers have ruled out hepatitis, the most common cause of substantial liver inflammation, because the children have tested negative on multiple occasions.
  • There’s also no proof that it’s caused by a bacterial infection. A coronavirus mutation, according to some, is to blame for the illness.
  • Symptoms:
  • Dark pee and pale faeces
  • Jaundice is a kind of jaundice that can happen to anyone (yellowing of eyes and skin)
  • itchiness of the skin
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Lethargy
  • stomach pains
  • High-temperature setting

UPSC Civil Services Daily Current Affairs 20th April 2022

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